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Dax Urbszat

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PSY100 May 24 th Human Memory - processed information that has been stored in neurons in our brain - based on expectations and imaginations as much as concrete memory o confabulation – making up events that never truly happened - memories are biased – perception/choosing/retrieving Memory - the process by which we observe, store, and recall information o may be visual, auditory, or tactile - processes may involved multiple systems Encoding - attention o memory goes where attention flows o conscious and unconscious - spotlight analogy o conscious attention – put the spotlight to that o automatically goes to threats in the environment - sensory detection o have established what to pay attention to, and what not to - recognition of meaning o picking what is important - response selection Levels of Processing - shallow: structural encoding o capital letters, what colour, etc. - intermediate: phonemic encoding o rhyming, homonyms, etc. - deep: semantic encoding o meaning or symbolism Facilitation Encoding - elaboration o making examples that make it easier to understand and remember - visual imagery o visualising things to remember them - self referential encoding o take information that you learned and connect it to something - rehearsal and over learning o the more you go over things, the less improvement you will see - deep and transfer appropriate processing o the way you study should reflect the method being tested on - distributed practice - organize information Mnemonic Devices - verbal mnemonic o acrostics, acronyms, and rhymes - visual mnemonics o link method  make a picture in my head of what I need to remember o method of loci  route… o keyword o SQ3R  difference between passive (30%) and active reading (85%) Encoding Specificity - encoding specificity principle: the idea that case of retrieval of a memory depends on match of encoding with retrieval o poor recall if shallow learning is examined using a deep processing technique  student who reads multiple choice items in test book and then takes an essay exam will likely not do very well - state-dependent theory Storage - assumes that memory consists of 3 stores: o 1. sensory registers  iconic (visual)  echoic (auditory) o 2. short-term memory (STM) o 3. long-term memory (LTM) The Information Processing Model of Memory stimulus  sensory registers  short term memory (limited capacity 20-30secs)  long term memory (through repetition mostly) - LTM to STM with rehearsal to update - it is easier to update old memory than to create new - LTM to STM: remembering o information can be lost too (pseudo-forgetting ie. what did Dax wear)  something was stored as a weak trace of memory  could be blocked for reasons STIMULUS  Sensory Registers (some info is lost)  STM (some info is lost) – through rehearsal  LTM (some info is lost)  through retrieval, goes back to STM Characteristics of STM - STM is a variant of memory that is of limited duration o information in STM fades after 20-30secs (without rehearsal) - STM has limited capacity storage o STM capacity is about 7 items of information  capacity is constant across cultures - STM involves rehearsal o maintenance: information is repeated o elaborative: information is related to other knowledge Working Memory - STM 2.0 -
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