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Dax Urbszat (583)

Brain and Behaviour

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Dax Urbszat

PSY100 May 11 th Brain and Behaviour Components of the Neuron - dendrites: receive information from other neurons o tree like branches with tiny receptor sites to what the neurotransmitter bind to send their messages - cell body: creates transmitter molecules o summate electrical activity – neuro-impulse (action potential) – release of energy to terminal buttons - action hilloch: fires the action potential - axon: myelin insulates the nerve cell, speeds up conduction of nerve messages o terminal buttons of the axon release transmitter o tails/highways – sending information down o free nerve endings: to help us have feeling o afferent : sensory neurons o efferent: motor neurons - send information to the muscles - glia: structural support for the brain – what we use to create the myelin sheath – insulation o more myelin: information travels faster - about 100 billion neurons in brains - converting electrical energy from our environment to chemical energy through neurotransmitters o affected by how we think, what you eat, how much sunlight you have etc. Graded Potentials - stimulation of the nerve membrane can open ion channels in the membrane o NA+ ions flowing in will depolarize the membrane (movement from –70mV to say –60mV) o K+ ions flowing out of the membrane will hyperpolarize the membrane (-70mV to say –90mV) The Action Potential - graded potentials are generated at the dendrites and are conduced along the membrane to the axon hillock - if the summated activity at the axon hillock raises the membrane potential past threshold, an AP will occur - during the AP, NA+ ions flow into the cell raising the membrane potential to +40mV, producing the spike o the restoration of the membrane potential to –70mN is produces by an opening of channels to K+ o the AP is conducted along the axon toward the terminals Details of the Synapse - cleft: space between the receptor sites of the dendrites and the terminal buttons Neurotransmitters - acetylcholine (ach) o memory and learning – don’t have to build the whole road, just have to repair it o sleep and dreaming – disruptions in the ach process are responsible for Alzheimer’s and dementia o necessary to send messages about motor movement o agonistic: mimic neurotransmitters o antagonistic: block neurotransmitters  fills up all the receptor sites and blocks it from receiving ach  dying from paralyzation - monoamines - epinephrine and norepinephrine o ability to pay attention and stay focussed o disruptions in the norepinephrine – depression/bipolar disorder o too much: manic episodes, not enough: depression o SSRI/SSNRI: medication for imbalance of norepinephrine o MAO: enzyme that comes in and deactivates/kills the neurotransmitters (to make sure we don’t have too many) o MAO inhibitors: anti-depressant – giving the neurotransmitters a better chance to bind – a lot of side effects  But MAO deactivates all the neurotransmitters, not just norepinephrine o epinephrine: released during fight or flight response system – adrenaline - serotonin - dopamine o reward and pleasure neurotransmitter  motivation o addiction, involuntary motor control o lack of dopamine: Parkinson’s – lack of motor control o too much dopamine: schizophrenia o agonistic: cocaine – mimic dopamine – floods the part of the brain with dopamine rich receptor sites (reward pathway) o antagonist: anti-psychotic drugs - GABA o inhibitory neurotransmitters – without it, we are unable to inhibit things o antagonist: alcohol - Glutamate o Helps in the creation of new neuro-connections – ie. myelinzation, moving new terminal buttons to new binding sites, helps solidify new learning potentials Neurocommunication - different neurons have different receptor sites in different areas in the brain Overview of the Nervous System - begins with the nervous system  peripheral and central o peripheral: somatic and automatic o central: brain and spinal cord  automatic: sympathetic and parasympathetic - brain and spinal cord in the center - consider the brain stems as an extension of the brains - peripheral: on the outside o somatic and automatic o somatic: anything to do with the body – conveys information to the central nervous system and sends messages back o automatic: on your own, without control – without conscious thought – heartbeat/lung function, etc
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