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Dax Urbszat (583)

Motivation and Emotion

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Dax Urbszat

PSY100 May 30 th Motivation and Emotion Motivation - motivation refers to the moving force that energizes behaviour o direction or goal of motives o strength of motives - motives reflect: o biological needs o psychosocial needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization – creative art, service to others Steem – respect from peers Love or belongingness – intimacy Safety – housing, money Physiological – hunger, thirst Hypothalamic Regulation of Eating - hypothalamus receives information regarding nutrient levels in body o lateral region  stimulation induces eating  lesions of the lateral region produce starvation o ventromedial region  lesions induce overeating  stimulation inhibits eating Sexual Motivation - 1. hormones o organizational effects: prenatal exposure to androgens alters the neural circuits in brain and spinal cord,  adult behaviour of androgenized subject is masculine o activational effects: alteration of adult levels of hormones can alter the intensity of a behaviour that is modulated by that hormone - 2. pheromones - 3. environmental cues Evolutionary Analysis of Human Sexual Behaviour - parental investment - patterns of sexual activity - differences in mate preferences - jealousy Sexual Orientation - sexual orientation is the direction of attraction for a sexual partner o homosexuality: attraction for person of the same-sex - twin studies document a biological basis for homosexuality - hormonal responses differ between homosexual and heterosexual men Affiliation Motives - the need to associate with others and maintain social bonds - companionship, friendship, and love - evolutionary bases - safety, grooming, survival - rejection, loss of intimate, loneliness - anxiety, jealousy, and depression Achievement Motives - persons who have a high level of need for achievement tend to: o choose moderately dif
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