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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

November 19, 2012 PSY: Lecture 11 Intelligence Intelligence(s) - Multiple definitions of intelligence:  Expressed in different domains  Absent-minded professor  Intelligence is functional  Directed at solving problems  Intelligence is defined and shaped by culture  “What intelligence tests measure….”  IQ does not prevent you from making mistakes  Obviously, intelligence is not measured by one thing Intelligence testing - Psychometric approach: devise tests to measure a person’s cognitive level relative to others in a population  First popularized by sir Francis Galton  Mass testing at an exposition  Galton devised correlation procedure to examine relation between simple measures of intelligence  Simple measure of intelligence did not correlate with social class  Binet and Simon devised a test to measure intellectual development in children  Devised “mental age concept”: MA = average age at which children achieve an actual score  It measures very specific forms of intelligence  It measures based on how well an individual does in school (tests school subjects) Intelligent Quotient - To allow for comparison of test scores among persons, L. Terman devised the concept of intelligence quotient (IQ): IQ = (MA/CA) x 100  Ma = Mental Age  CA = Chronological Age Frequency Distribution of IQ Scores - Average score is arbitrary and goes up every year - From 115-130 - If we get below 85-70 it’s called borderline insanity - Below 70-55 semi-retarded - Below 55 is mentally retarded November 19, 2012 Validity Issues for IQ Tests - IQ test scores predict ability to succeed in school (valid use) - IQ tests are often criticized because of:  Minimal theoretical basis (no underlying construct was used to devise tests)  Cultural bias  Scores depend on language, cultural experiences  Immigrants from Europe were deemed mental defectives because they had poor test scores  Tests were administered in English to non-English- speaking immigrants Approaches to Intelligence - Psychometric approach: statistical techniques are used to define intellectual skills and abilities - Information-processing: examine mental processes - Multiple intelligences: notion that intelligence is a function of multiple systems Factor Analytic Approach to Intelligence testing - Statistical approach in which test ites are examined using factor analysis  Look for items that correlate together (are a common factor) - How many factors?  Thurstone: one common factor “g”  Speaman: two factors:  “g” for general intelligence  “s” for specific intelligence - Diverging thinking test - Does not include something talent and something smoething - Verbal intelligence Fluid versus Crystallized Intelligence - Fluid: refers to mental processes rather than specific information (declines with age) - Crystallized: a persons knowledge base (increases with age) - When you start learning you brain stops decaying after a certain age Information Processing Approach - Examines the processes that underline intelligent behavior  Speed of processing: how rapidly a person can perform a mental task  Is a
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