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PSY100 jun 1

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Bruce Schneider

PSY100 June 1st Personality Personality Research - personality refers to enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation, and behaviour that are expressed in different circumstances - the aim of personality research is to: o construct general theories of personality o assess individual indifferences in personality - we all have the same 5 traits o its how much of each that makes us who we are Psychodynamic Views of Personality - Freud invoked a role of unconscious process in the control of behaviour o Based on his observation of his clients - topographical model argued for 3 levels of consciousness o largest part is the unconscious o conscious is what are thinking of right now o conflict occurs between the different aspects of consciousness  dynamic interplay between 3 aspects of our personality o required compromise formation - ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO o the iceberg analogy o until we are 2 years old, we don’t have these aspects – we are part of our caregivers o birth to 2: o ID – PLEASURE  rules the pleasure seeking side of us  ex. babies want what they want when they want it – self- centred - by age 2, we begin to develop our identity o EGO - REALITY  deals with reality (reality principle)  mostly conscious, sometimes unconscious  ego tries to fulfill the ID’s wishes and desires • ID threatens to overwhelm the EGO with anxiety – bringing up bad memories or shameful desires etc. • If the EGO is satisfying the ID’s desires, the ID won’t evoke such memories and desires • EGO is a slave technically o SUPEREGO - MORALITY - cannot test/prove this theory – doesn’t follow scientific method Freud’s Developmental Model - human behaviour is motivated by two drives o 1. aggressive o 2. sexual  libido: pleasure seeking and sensuality as well as desire for intercourse - libido follows a developmental course during childhood o stages of development o fixed progression of change from stage to stage o notion of fixation at a particular libidinal stage  in adulthood, some behaviour will regress back to that stage continuously  to try to help you get what you needed – compensation  not productive behaviours  reflective of improper/abnormal/dysfunctional personality Stages - no evidence to support these stages because if they are repressed desires, how can we bring them out STAGE AGE CONFLICTS AND CONCERNS ORAL 0-18 months dependency - under gratified – ex. fetish for large breasts, smoking - over gratified – too much stimulation o ex. eating disorder, talk a lot ANAL 2-3 years orderliness, cleanliness - anal retentive – under gratified - anal expressive – over gratified o late often, disorganized PHALLIC 4-6 years parental identification, oedipal complex, penis envy, castration complex - kids are always touching themselves (not for pleasure, but for exploration) - Oedipus Rex – when we are little boys, we want to marry our mothers - girls want to sleep with their fathers and marry their mothers – penis envy o every woman wishes they were a man secretly – repressed desires LATENCY 7-11 years sublimation of sexual and aggressive urges - put away all these fixations and conflicts GENITAL 12+ years mature sexuality and relationships - puberty, secondary sex characteristics - fixations will start to show – regress back to the previous stages EGO Defence Mechanisms - defence mechanisms are unconscious mental processes that protect our the conscious person from anxiety - based on self-deception 1. repression a. anxiety evoking thoughts are kept unconscious b. take information out of consciousness and place it in unconsciousness so that it can’t come back to consciousness c. don’t even know it ever happened d. memories can be retrieved through hypnosis – but repressed memories and false memories look exactly the same – hard to believe 2. denial a. person refuses to recognize reality b. the information is not out of our consciousness, we just discredit it 3. projection a. person attributes their own unacceptable impulses to others 4. reaction formation a. person converts an unacceptable impulse into the
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