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Lecture

PSY100 may 31
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY201H5
Professor
Bruce Schneider
Semester
Summer

Description
PSY100 May 31 st Development - the focus of developmental psychology is on how humans develop and change over time o change can occur across the life span of the person  cradle to the grave developmental psychology o assumes that change is inevitable o change can be continuous or discontinuous Core Developmental Issues - delineate the interacting forces of nature and nurture o maturation: refers to biologically determined changes that follow an orderly sequence o determine the importance of early experiences  the notion of critical periods - assess whether change is continuous or in qualitative stages Critical Periods - two kinds of critical periods o need stimulation, need language, and sensitivity - critical period concept suggests that the brain is set to acquire a function during a limited period of time - if key experiences do not occur during a critical time period, the function may not develop or may not be fully developed o the case of Genie: a girl who was isolated until the age of 13  although Genie made some gains in language, her syntax never approached normal levels  the case of Genie supports a critical period for language acquisition (yet some point to her gains later in life)  measles can cause mental retardation if contracted during certain fetal periods Developmental Methodology - cross-sectional method compares groups of different ages at the same time o useful for assessing age differences o not useful for examining age changes  the problem is that each age group (cohort) has different life experiences - longitudinal method compares same group at multiple time points - sequential studies examine different age groups at multiple time points (reduce cohort effects) Physical Development - prenatal period has 3 phases o germinal period – 1 to 2 weeks after conception o embryonic period – 3 to 8 weeks of gestation o fetal period – from 9 weeks to birth Teratogens - during the embryonic period, the developing fetus is susceptible to toxins - teratogens are environmental agents that harm the fetus (viruses, chemicals) o fetal alcohol syndrome: if the mother consumes alcohol during pregnancy, the fetus is exposed to the alcohol, which can lead to abnormal physical development and to learning disabilities o crack cocaine: fetal exposure to cocaine alters motor and emotional development Infant Reflexes - reflexes are innate motor responses elicited by critical stimuli o reflexes are adaptive - examples of infant reflexes: o rooting reflex: a touch on the cheek induces the infant to move its mouth toward the source of the touch (helps guide feeding) o sucking reflex: tactile stimulation of the mouth produces rhythmic sucking Motor Development - 2 – lifting chin - 6 - standing with support - 9 – standing alone - 11 – walking with support - 12 – walking alone Emotional Development - temperament o measure by looking at activity level, mood, ability to deal with or overcome emotional reactivities o 3 types:  1. easy children • sleep a lot, happy babies, easy to soothe  2. slow to warm up • a little more shy, cautious  3. difficult • cry all the time, sleeping is off, unsatisfied, hard to take care of  4. mixed • difficult at times, good at others - attachment o secure  child is soothed very quickly and begins to habituate and play very quickly when the caregiver leaves  meeting the needs of the child – creating a secure environment  when I cry, I get something – feel like my needs can be met through my actions – trust vs. mistrust o anxious-ambivalent  child takes more time to get to the toys, when the caregiver comes back, they push away because they are unhappy that they were left alone  takes a longer time to play with the toys when the caregiver leaves/comes back  needs are met inconsistently – don’t trust thei
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