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Jan 22 2013.docx

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Elizabeth Johnson

Jan 22 2013 PSY 210- LEC 3 The Zygote: The developing organism from the ime of the union of the srem and the egg to about 2 week of gestation. Consists of the implementation of fertilized egg to the utrian wall The Embryo: 2-8 week post conception. Consist of the differentiation of the major physiological structures and systems. The Fetal Period: 2 mnths after conceptionthasts till birth. Rapid muscular dev, dev in the CNS, fetal movement usually by 4 mnth, reflexes usually appear about 5 mtnhs, eyes open and close by 6 mnth. Env risk: Teratogens: env agents like drugs, medication, diet imbalance, or polluting substance that may cause dev deviations in a growing human organism; most threating in the embryonic stage. Teratogen most effected during critical periods ( first 2-8 weeks), each different teratogen exerts diff effects. Maternal or fetal genotypes interact with effects of teratogens (more or less susceptible to certain genotypes). Some may have no effect on the mother, the longer the exposure the worse the effect. Smoking: leads to low births, increase risk of death, lower IQ etc. Other Risks: Premature babies: preterm babies, born prior to 38 weeks to conception. The number of severity f problems increases as birth weight and age at birth decreases. Chldern born very low in birth weight have more learning problems. Stimulatins prgrammes including messags hlp offset negative outcomes on prematre births. Parental contact important for both infant and parents. Long term effects are depemdent on soci economic status and env. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: result of heavy alcohol use during pregnancy, lower IQ scores, poor school performance, higher risk for dependency problems later in life. Some fasical chracteristics: small head, small eye opening, thin upper lip, short nose. Fetal alchol spectrum disorder: not the same as FAS, sypmtoms can range in type and seerity, oftentime no facial cues to FASD. Parental Age: increase fertility prolems with age, miscarriage more likely, more likely to have a child with chromosomal abnormalities (40+ moms). Older fathers MAY contribute to the outcomes, teen moms are at the greatest risk cause they probably won’t take the medical care that mthers of the 20’s or 30’s would. Can also contribute to multiple births as a woman ages Choice of diet: affected by ethnicity, social economic status and education. Infant Reflexes: involuntary response toe external stimulation. Permnanent (lasts all life): eye blinks Temporary( fades sometime after the birth: Babinski: when you cress your fingers from the heel to the toe of a child, the fingers of the feet will fan out Maro (startle): scarring the child as if the were falling mid way will elicit a shocked stiffening of the whole body reaction, the absence of this means a dev prob in CNS. Palmar Grasp: hold ut your finger to the infant and the will grab it. Absence of this means depression Plantar/ toe grasp: toes of the
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