PSy210 Jan 29:
Fetal Alcohol Specturm Syndrome:
-causes irreversible permanent brian damage
-50% of pregnancies are unplanned, 50% of women in modern westerns ociety
-Severity of symptoms as well as ranges of symtopms vary widely berween fasd
-difficult to predict risk, so advice is for a woman to stop drinking before she
Sudden infant Death Syndrome:
-sudden or unexpected death of a healthy baby, the death remains unexplained
-male infants born early with very low birth weight are usually at higherco risks of
-Co-sleeping can decrease SIDS, the biggest advice is that babies shoud sleep on
their back! SIDS is most common in 2-4 months babies
What do babies do all do:
Regular sleep 8-9 hrs
Irregular sleep is 8-9 hrs
Drsiness is .5-3 hrs
Alert inactivity is 2-3 hrs
Waking activity- 2-3 hrs
Crying is 1-3 hrs
What Determines Puberty:
-Genetic influences, Athletic Training, Parent-Child relationships, stress
People are growing taller:
Reasons for why height and weghts have increase d in modern society: health and
nutrition have impores in mamny countries, as wel as socioeconomic situations
-people are laso growing in their average weight for their height, it is a very huge
problem in north America.
-Most Canadian children are inactive and over weight; its linked to increase in cloric
intake; genetics can play a role in reagrds to one’s metabolism; obesity is linked to
many health problems.
Sensation vs Percerption:
-Some species are sensitive to perceptual information out of our range
-other species pick up types of information that humans simply don’t use ( eg.
Homing pigeons use magnetic field to navigate)
-human perception changes across the life span. Sensation:
The detection of stimuli by sensory receptor: detection and discrimination
Perception: is the interpretation of sensation in order to make them meaning full.
Human Sensory Input:
Touch: * refer to previous lecture
Olfaction: innate preferences for certain odors (sweet preferred over bitter).
Experience based preference for familiar odors (preference for mothers smell).
Fetus is able to experience smell sensation around 28 weeks gestation. Mother’s diet
during pregnancy shapes postnatal smell preferences. 1-2 week olds prefer their
Preferential Smell Procedure:
Cernoch & Porter:
-12-18 day infants presented under pit pads, breast fed babies preferred own
mothers armpit pads.
Taste: children have a negative reaction to sour tastes and positive to sweet tastes.
Memory for tastes experience in the womb endures long after birth.
-Acuity: Visual Preference: children like things that are more complex. Babies don’t
see as clear as adults, but they aren’t blind. Their visions begins to get clear around
-Eye movement control: saccadic movements ( eyes making abrupt jumps from one
sight to the other) are seen very early. Smooth tracking by infants are seen at 7
weeks of age (following something with a consistent eye movement)
-Color perception: new born see the world in color, but they have trouble
distinguishing blue, green, white, yellow. By four month they can distinguish all the
-Depth perception: children have been proven to have some sort of depth cues, as
we proven through glass experiments.
-Face perception: new born 12-36 hrs old are more interested at looking at their
mother rather than another woman. Infants like to look longer at attractive faces.
Infants expect mothers to interact with them. Infants become visibly distressed in
the still face paradigm.
Robert Fantz was the one who founded infant research perception in the 1950’s.
Auditory experiences begin in the third trimester of the pregnancy.
Electrophysiological studies proved this with premature babies. There are changes
in heartbeat and movements occurred in responses to sounds. Postnatal memory for
fetal auditory sounds. Audibility curves for infants and adults are parallel. Sound
thresholds for infants are higher than adults. Thresholds however continue to
improve through the first year. Sound localization (locating where the sounds are coming from) occurs in new