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Anna Grivas Matejka

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Wednesday, April 3, 2013 Chapter 14-15: Morality, Altruism, and Aggression, and Psychopathology Chapter 14 Piaget: Moral Development (sub-stages exist but not listed in lecture) Altruism is being nice/doing something nice without the intention of having anything in return, whereas morality involves something in return (tangible or not) 1. Premoral (up to 5years): Not so interested in being moral and unaware of rules; manipulating rules  beginning to understand the concept of rules 2. Moral realism (5-11): Grasp concept of rules, but no cognitive flexibility  rule is unchanging (very black and white; fixed); “don’t hit” = rule, so if child keeps getting pushed and you tell the child to push back the bully, child will not do so  no situation is an exception to rule (don’t grasp concept of pushing back); if very egocentric still, unable to see others’ perspective therefore is limited - Moral absolutism; immanent justice 3. Morality of reciprocity (11&up): Ask questions b/c can see others’ perspective; most people are stuck in moral realism (stage 2); passed egocentrism  considering others’ POV and feelings Kohlberg: Moral Development Relational rather than traditional development (no specific ages for levels b/c of individuality and parent relationship 1. Preconventional: Behaving to avoid punishments 2. Conventional: Abide by rules to gain approval and maintain relationships; accept social rules without asking questions; judge others based on following rules  good versus bad; don’t hit because will hurt other’s feelings  regards other’s perspective; relational 3. Postconvential: Most people never reach this level; rational judgments; behavior controlled by internalized ethical code  turn inwards, own rules  everyone has right to personal safety and dignity therefore don’t hit Social Interactions on Moral Development - Ages are skewed b/c of social exposure o More exposure = developing faster o Better understanding of what others expect b/c more practice  think about solutions - Parents who use consistent discipline, using reasoning, and providing explanation (morally based) will let children accelerate their moral skills o If peers do this, also works - Begin to understand concepts important for relationships - Does good moral judgment lead to good moral behavior o Model: teaches you morality, but does not engage in moral behavior o Environment: understand, but environment is where it won’t help you survive Wednesday, April 3, 2013 o Idea of impulsivity: as long as they are impulsive, will not be able to correlate behavior to morality  control of impulsivity is in frontal lobe(takes longest to develop fully) Self Reg. & Delay of Gratification - Concept of impulsivity - Inhibit impulses and behave according to social rules = self reg. 1. Control: Need prompting by caregivers 2. Self-control: Able to comply with caregivers’ expectations even If caregiver is absent 3. Self-gratification: Able to delay gratification (tolerance; most able to delay by age 5) Video: marshmallow test (YouTube) Consistency - Practiced behavior in a situation will occur again in a similar situation  influenced by fear of being caught (more adults, or peers showing moral behavior) - What matters to child (consequences)  motivation - ADHD: inability to delay gratification (act without thinking  impulsive) Pro-social Behavior (pro-social versus altruistic) - Develops 13-14 months - Approach others to comfort, but inconsistent - Cues in form of (1) language (better able to learn if have higher language skills), being (2) able to take another’s perspective, and (3) general cognitive ability and flexibility - Skills are not stable for first few years, but then stabilize - Can be empathetic without saying anything o Become more quiet and/or cognitive (reflect, analyze, think a lot) o Measuring this in science is hard o Styles are stable over time (difficult to change) - Assumption is girls are more pro-social than boys o Generally there is a finding that this is true  girls are better at expressing kindness and consideration o But differs in situations o Boys are socialized to be more solution focused than kind and considerate Chapter 15: Psychopathology Psychopathology = study of disorders of the mind Everybody can have symptoms, but when grouped together and begin to affect your life = pathology Developmental: how does it progress in infancy, toddlers, childhood, adolescence? - How symptoms vary across development Wednesday, April 3, 2013 - Hormonal imbalance = mood/anxiety shown in ages around 12  normal o At what point does it become atypical? - When we understand what is a precursor, then can do something about it - Understanding child’s pathway: genetically driven depression versus environmental factors  different treatments Abnormal - Happy family, don’t talk about being sad or be sad  “need to stop doing that”  symptoms brushed under the rug  behavior becomes normalized very quickly there
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