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Lecture

PSY210 - Jan 14th, 2014pdf.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY210H5
Professor
Elizabeth Johnson
Semester
Winter

Description
PSY210 - Jan 14 School for Child Study (Toronto, 1926)▯ ▯ • William Blatz - later famous for his work on the Dionne quintuplets (exploring the interaction of environment and genetics) -> what makes us what we are ▯ • Quintuplets were taken from their family early infancy and lived in ‘Quintland’ until the age of 7▯ ▯ - they were put on display (like a tourist attraction) ▯ ▯ - used as advertisements ▯ ▯ - raised not by parental figures but by nurses ▯ ▯ - continued to be publicly watched throughout childhood and adolescent ▯ ▯ - controversy on whether or not it was right for them to be taken from their family at such ▯ ▯ a young age, put on display and used as tourist attractions ▯ • It is important to think of the benefits and drawbacks ▯ ▯ Underlying themes ▯ ▯ • Biology vs Environment ▯ ▯ • Developmental changes described at quantitative or qualitative - changes are just overnight or continuous linear change ▯ ▯ • What drives change - contributions such as external environment and children themselves (passive/active; innate endowment impact their environment) > it is multilayered ▯ ▯ ▯ • Core abilities develop independently or in concert - cognitive/social ▯ ▯ Early stages - how critical or predictive▯ ▯ Theoretical approaches▯ ▯ • Developmental theory - is an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development ▯ • Theories generate development hypotheses ▯ • testable predictions for describing and explaining development ▯ • There are many theories of development, and they can be grouped according to the type of approach they take to studying dev’t ▯ ▯ 1. Biological ▯ ▯ ▯ a. Maturational championed by Gessel (1880-1961)▯ ▯ ▯ - child dev’t reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan within the body ▯ ▯ ▯ - dev’t is just a natural unfolding of a biological plan▯ ▯ ▯ - weakness was that it allowed learning to play little role in dev’t ▯ ▯ ▯ b. Ethological championed by Konrad Lorenz ▯ ▯ ▯ - behaviour must be viewed and understood as occurring in a particular context ▯ ▯ ▯ and as having adaptive survival value ▯ ▯ ▯ - many types of learning can only take place during a critical period ▯ ▯ ▯ - biologically based, evolved behaviour patterns are stressed, but an ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ appropriately stimulating environment is necessary to elicit ▯ ▯ ▯ - newly hatching chicks following the first moving object they see (Lorenz - had ▯ ▯ ▯ them see his black boots so the chicks followed him around▯ ▯ 2. Structural-Organismic▯ PSY210 - Jan 14 ▯ - dev’t is stage-like ▯ ▯ - dev’t is determined primarily by how a child resolves conflicts at different ages ▯ ▯ ▯ a. Freud ▯ ▯ ▯ - psychodynamic theory (page 10)▯ ▯ ▯ - 5 discrete stages (dev’t was described as passing each of these stages) ▯ ▯ ▯ b. Piaget ▯ ▯ ▯ - Piagentian Theory (page 11) ▯ ▯ ▯ - cognitive development (4 diff. stages) ▯ ▯ ▯ - “Children are like little scientists trying to make sense of the world.” ▯ ▯ ▯ c. Erikson▯ ▯ ▯ - psychosocial theory (page 11) ▯ ▯ ▯ - 8 stages (he has very distinct descriptions for these stages) ▯ ▯ 3. Learning ▯ ▯ - all learning approaches have in common that dev’t is thought to be determined ▯▯ ▯ primarily on the child’s environment▯ ▯ - focus on environment influences ▯ ▯ - dev’t is generally continuous (major difference) ▯ ▯ ▯ a. Behaviourism ▯ ▯ ▯ - based on earlier work by Pavlov (Pavlov dogs)▯ ▯ ▯ - an approach that views directly observable events - stimuli and response - as ▯ ▯ ▯ the appropriate focus of study and the dev’t of behaviour as taking place through ▯ ▯ ▯ classical and operant conditioning▯ ▯ ▯ - classical conditioning vs operant conditioning ▯ ▯ ▯ - Watson: first to define what behaviourism is; famous for fear conditioning ▯ ▯ ▯ experiments with “Little Albert”▯ ▯ ▯ - Skinner: studied learning in rats using what is now termed a ‘skinner box’; made ▯ ▯ strong claims on human dev’t based on findings with rats ▯ ▯ ▯ b. Cognitive Social learning ▯ ▯ ▯ - Albert Bandura: very diff. type of learning theory emphasizing imitation of social ▯ ▯ ▯ models (social aspects of learning) ▯ ▯ ▯ - a learning theory that stresses learning by observation and imitation mediated ▯ ▯ ▯ by cognitive social (page 14) ▯ ▯ ▯ - ie, Bobo doll, a study of aggressive behaviour through modelling ▯ ▯ ▯ c. Information processing ▯ ▯ ▯ - an approach inspired by imagining the brain as a computer (more modern ▯ ▯ ▯ approach) ▯ ▯ ▯ - (page 13)▯ ▯ ▯ - a quantitative increase in perception, attention, memory, and problem solving ▯ ▯ ▯ takes place with age ▯ ▯ ▯ - maturation and learning opportunities affect information processing skills ▯ ▯ 4. Contextual ▯ ▯ - dev’t can only be understood in relation to a child’s social and cultural environment ▯ ▯ ▯
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