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PSY210 - Jan 21, 2014pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

PSY210 - Jan 21 Role of experience VS role of innate endowment (debate of the origins of the human mind) ▯ - Watson, behaviorists flourish ▯ - contemporary see interaction between both in development ▯ - genes help shape environment and environment influence genes ▯ ▯ Range of reaction - how the environment changes genes - heredity does not rigidly fix behaviour but instead establishes a range of possible developmental outcomes that may occur in response to different environments▯ ▯ Environmental Risk ▯ Teratogen - PG86 (most sensitive and threatening in embryonic stage) ▯ Embryonic stage - when women are unaware of their pregnancy ▯ - the most serious damage from teratogens is first 2-8 weeks ▯ - generally thought to damage the developing fetus ▯ - teratogen effects are exerted mostly during critical periods ▯ - each different teratogen exerts different effects ▯ - maternal or fetal genotypes interacts with effects ▯ - sometimes the effects are delayed (could occur in the child’s adolescence) ▯ - one’s effects can intensify effects of others ▯ - some may have no effect on mothers ▯ - the longer the exposure, the worse the effect is ▯ - the more exposure you have to these teratogens the amplified it could be ▯ - typically period of susceptibility to structural defects when exposed to teratogens earlier ▯ - functional defects typically when exposed to teratogens later ▯ - however, these are completely relative (could be different for different teratogens) ▯ - illegal drugs such as cocaine, heroin could cause a newborn being born with withdrawal symptoms -> birth defects ▯ - legal drugs such as nicotine and alcohol exposure -> birth defects, premature babies, sudden death, low birth weight, cognitive deficiencies - lower IQ ▯ ▯ Premature and low birth weight babies ▯ - stimulation programmes including massage help offset negative outcomes ▯ - parental contact important for both infants and parents ▯ - long-term effects are dependent on socio-economic status and other environmental factors ▯ - responsiveness, mothers competence, family stresses, community support ▯ ▯ Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) ▯ - lower IQ, poor school performance, higher risk for dependency problems later in life ▯ - sometimes they have specific facial characteristics (sometimes) ▯ ▯ Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) ▯ - not the same as a full blown fetal alcohol syndrome ▯ - symptoms range in type and in severity ▯ - oftentimes invisible ▯ - FASD causes irreversible permanent brain damage ▯ - 50% of pregnancies are unplanned, and 50% of women in modern western society drink (1 in 4) ▯ - severity of symptoms, as well range of symptoms, vary widely between FASD sufferers (some very sensitive to lights and sounds, some not) ▯ PSY210 - Jan 21 - difficult to predict risk, so advice is for a woman to stop drinking before she conceives ▯ ▯ Additional Risk factors ▯ - parental age ▯ - fertility difficulty increases with age ▯ - teen moms at greatest risk ▯ - older fathers contribute to poor outcomes ▯ - miscarriage and chromosom
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