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Lecture

PSY210 - Jan 28, 2014pdf.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY210H5
Professor
Elizabeth Johnson
Semester
Winter

Description
PSY210 - Jan 28 Infant reflex - one good way to assess whether or not the child/baby is healthy or not ▯ - it is an involuntary response to external stimulation ▯ - permanent ▯ - eye blink ▯ - withdrawal: absence indicates sciatic nerve damage ▯ - temporary (PG 118)▯ - babinski: stroke bottom of baby’s foot toes fan out; indicates spinal damage ▯ - moro (starle reflex): startle baby (whether awake or not) will extend arms and then back towards chest▯ - palmar grasp: anytime you put a cylindrical baby will grasp; absence often indicates depression; grasp can be very strong▯ - plantar (toe grasp): press on the ball of baby’s foot, will grasp ▯ - rooting: stroke cheek, baby will turn towards to try to suck -> breastfeeding; absence can indicate depression▯ - stepping: absence can indicate depression; disappears within 3-4 months ▯ - sucking: may be initially weakened in babies whose mothers were medicated during childbirth; disappears by ~6 months▯ ▯ - many of these reflexes have obvious value in helping the newborn survive ▯ - many disappear during the first year of life ▯ - tests of reflexes may be combined with other assessments to gauge the health, maturity, and capacity of the baby ▯ ▯ What do newborns do all day? ▯ - two major states ▯ - sleeping ▯ - crying ▯ ▯ Sleeping ▯ - co-sleeping is controversial ▯ - newborns spend considerably more time in REM sleep ▯ - autostimulation theory: increased REM sleep required for brain development ▯ ▯ Crying ▯ - three types of cries: basic; angry; pain ▯ - crying becomes less about physiological needs more about psychological needs ▯ ▯ Moving ▯ - motor development ▯ - sequence the same across infants, timing varies ▯ - bother maturation and experience play a role in motor development ▯ - major motor milestones (fig 4.4) ▯ ▯ Fine motor skills dev’t▯ ▯ ▯ -aturation vs. Experience ▯ -hat drives the development of motor abilities? ▯ maturational viewpoint: unfolding of genetically programmed series of events ▯ PSY210 - Jan 28 - experiential viewpoint: opportunities to practice are important ▯ ▯ Growth ▯ - changes in height and weight ▯ - rapid growth in first 2 years ▯ - growth slows until spurt in puberty ▯ - girls hit growth spurt first ▯ ▯ What determines the timing of puberty?▯ - -actors contributing to the onset of puberty ▯ - genetic influences ▯ - parent-child relationships: probabilistically girls without a father hits puberty earlier than those that have a father in their life ▯ - stress ▯ ▯ People are growing taller ▯ - reasons for increased height and weight ▯ - health and nutrition have improved in many countries ▯ - socioeconomic conditions have improved ▯ ▯ Obesity epidemic ▯ - obesity an individuals weight is at least 30% in excess of average weight for their height and frame ▯ - obesity has been on the rise in N. America ▯ - most Canadian children are inactive and overweight ▯ - linked to increasing caloric intake patterns ▯ - genetic factors ▯ - education and income levels ▯ - modelling by others ▯ ▯ -ensation and Perception ▯ ▯ infants have different perceptual abilities than an adult ▯ Sensation: detention of stimuli by the sensory receptions ▯ Perception: the interpretation of sensations in order to make them meaningful (PG129) ▯ Attention: selection of particular sensory input for perceptual or cognitive processing and the exclusion of competing input ▯ ▯ Infant testing methodologies:▯ - preferential behaviours ▯ - habituation ▯ - operant conditioning▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Human sensory input ▯ - touch: earliest to develop; it is the largest sense organ ▯ - olfaction ▯ PSY210 - Jan 28 - taste ▯ - vision ▯ - audition ▯ ▯ Touch▯ - both fetus and newborn display reflexive behaviours in response to tactile stimulation ▯ - premature infants benefit from massage ▯ - newborns tend to be alert/active when a bit cool and sleepy/relaxed when a bit warm ▯ - new borns display distress response to discomfort ▯ ▯ Physically painful experience: male infants’ memory for pain of cir
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