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Lecture 5

PSY210 Lecture 5 Winter 2014

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY210H5
Professor
Elizabeth Johnson
Semester
Winter

Description
PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 5 – February 4, 2014 EMOTIONS Early Emotional Development - Emotions: subjective reactions to the environment, usually accompanied by some form of  physiological arousal and expressed in some form of behaviour - Infants are emotional o They express their emotions very early in life o Smiling and laughter are the first expressions of pleasure  Newborn infants display reflex smiles  Infants show preferences for human faces  Special smiles for mothers – Duchenne smiles  Not all babies smile with equal frequency’ individual, cultural, and sex  differences exist (e.g. girls tend to smile more than boys)  A wide array of stimuli can make baby laugh Theoretical Perspectives on Emotional Development - Genetic­maturational perspective o Emotions have biological underpinnings o Identical and fraternal twin research - Learning Perspective o Individual emotional expressions result from individual experiences o Experiences elicit and reinforce responses - Functionalist Perspective o Help in achieving goals and adapting to the environment o Emotional signals (social cues) guide behaviours Emotional Expressions - Primary/Basic emotions o Interest, distress, disgust, and contentment (at birth) o Anger, sadness, joy, surprise, fear (emerge 2­7 months) o Biologically programmed? - Secondary/Complex emotions o In second year o Embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, pride o Self­conscious or self­evaluative emotions o Initially, only expressed when adult is present Interpreting others’ emotions - Recognizing facial emotion o 3 months – discrimination o 5­7 months – categorization, understanding? - Social referencing (7­10 months) o Something new comes in your environment, and you don’t know what to do, so you  look at your mom to see how she reacts (use her as a reference) - Empathy (18­24 months, conversations) Recognizing Emotions in Others - In general, children are more proficient at producing than at recognizing emotions PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 5 – February 4, 2014 - The two abilities are positively related: Children who are skilled at one are typically skilled at  the other ATTACHMENT Attachment - Attachment emerges over the first 6­8 months in a consistent series of steps 1. Newborns display a preference for humans over inanimate objects. 2. Soon after birth infants learn to discriminate familiar people over unfamiliar ones. 3. Babies develop attachments to specific people (typically mother first). - Signs of Attachment o Stranger Anxiety  Negative reactions of infants to an unfamiliar person o Separation Anxiety  Negative reactions of infants when the caregiver temporarily leaves o Greeting reactions  Positive reactions from the infant when the caregiver returns o Secure­base behaviours  Behaviour in which the infant uses the caregiver for exploration Theories of Attachment - Psychoanalytic theory: (feeding) o Freud: Oral gratification o Erikson: responsiveness ­> trust/mistrust - Learning theory: (reward) o Food is primary reinforce o Mother becomes secondary reinforcers - REVIEW: Theories of Attachment o Harlow and Zimmerman’s “surrogate mother” research o Is feeding or contact comfort the cause of attachment? o The monkeys went to the cloth mothers for comfort when they were scared or placed  in a new environment, regardless if the clothed mother didn’t provide milk for the  baby monkeys - John Bowlby – Attachment Theory o Influence of Ethology  All species are born with a number of innate behavioural tendencies that  contribute to the survival of the species over the course of evolution  These “built­in behaviours” are specially designed to promote attachment  relationships  Parents and babies are biologically predisposed to form attsthments o Attachment relationships develop from parent­infant interactions over the 1  year of  life - Check textbook for other theories Assessing Attachment - Childhood attachment is often measured using the Strange Situation test: o Children are separated and reunited with the caregiver PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 5 – February 4, 2014 o Evaluates the use of the caregiver as a safe haven and a secure base - Strange Situation Procedure (Ainsworth et al., 1978) o Experimenter introduces parent and infant to playroom and leaves o Parent sits while baby plays o Stranger enters, sits, talks to parent o Parent leaves o Parent returns and greets baby, stranger leaves o Parent leaves o Stranger enters and offers comfort o Parent returns, comforts, engages baby with toys Attachment Styles - Secure o 65% o Infant explores while mother is present o Upset when mother leaves o Greets mother warmly upon her return, seeks for her comfort o Friendly to stranger when mother is present - Resistant o 10% o Infant stays close to mother; upset when she leaves o Explore very little in mother’s presence o Ambivalent when she returns o Wary of stranger at all times - Avoidant o 20% o Very little distress when mother leaves o Seems to ignore mother o May be sociable with or ignore stranger - Disorganized/Disoriented o 5­10% o Seem to both approach and avoid mother o May act dazed or freeze Role of Parents? - Quality of attachment is influenced greatly by early caregiver­child interactions - Styles of caregiving o Secure attachment is associated with sensitive caregiving, which is consistent and  responsive Role of Culture? (figure from textbook) LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT What is Language? - A communication system in which words and their written symbols combine in various,  regulated ways to produce an infinite number of messages (p.253) Five Components of Language - Phonology o Phonemes: basic units of sound  /p/ and /b/ PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 5 – February 4, 2014 - Morphology o Rules for how sounds form words  Past tense adds –ed  Plurals add “s” - Semantics o Meaning of words and parts of words o Free morphemes: dog o Grammatical (bound) morphemes: ­s - Syntax o Rules for word combinations o The cat chased the dog. o The dog was chased by the cat. - Pragmatics o Knowledge of how language is used to communicate  Conversational conventions  Social conventions The Neonatal Period - Early sensitivity to speech o Newborns are sensitive to human speech  They prefer speech to other sounds  They prefer their mother’s language o WHAT ABOUT DAD? ­> recall mothers 
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