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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Language Development/ Moral Development

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 7 – February 25, 2014 REVIEW: What is language? - Acommunication system in which words and their written symbols combine in various, regulated ways to produce an infinite number of messages (page 253) Speech perception - Adults are only able to discriminate phonemes n their native language(s) o Example:Adult native Japanese speakers have difficulty hearing difference between /r/ and /l/ - Young infants are able to discriminate phonemes from most languages Can a non-naïve contrast be maintained? - Exposed 9-month-oldAmerican infants to Mandarin Chinese speaker during 12 lab visits (total of 5 hours exposure) o Live interaction (stories, games, etc.) o Audio-video recordings of Mandarin Chinese Speakers o Audio recordings of Mandarin Chinese Speakers Early vocalizations - Produce abilities: o Cooing (2 months of age) o Babbling (4-10 months) o First words (10-12 months) Early word learning - Word learning is slow at first o First word around first birthday o 50 words by 18 months - Nqaming explosion (18-24 months) o 200-300 words by 24 months Hart and Risley (1995) - Socioeconomic status, or at least income level, is highly predicting how large children vocabulary are - However, there are other variables that may be a factor driving this: education, nutrition, better day care Theories of Language Development - Learning Perspective o What drives language development? ENVIRONMENT (Nurture) o Mechanisms:  Reinforcement (Skinner)  Imitation and observation (Bandura) o No language without nurture: GENIE - Nativist Perspective o What drives language development? BIOLOGY (Nature) o Mechanism: Noam Chomsky’s Language Acquisition Device (LAD) o Support for nativist perspective: Linguistic universal, children apply rules to grammar to novel words (remember, the “wug” test), critical periods, ▯idgin creole o Language without input  Deaf children who do not receive language input (who are not taught sign) create their own simple languages (Home sign) PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 7 – February 25, 2014  Children exposed to impoverished languages input “improve” upon their input  Language “invented” by children with no language input can, over the course of generations, evolve” into a real language o Animals don’t learn language as readily or successfully as humans  Chimps raised in a human family setting never begin to speak, even if they get the same language input and socialization as a human child o Steven Pinker - Interactionist Perspective o Learning theorists and nativists are partially correct o Language acquisition a result of  Biological maturation  Cognitive development environment o Children are biologically prepared for language o But require extensive experience o Children play an active role in acquiring language o How caregivers support language acquisition  Using simplified speech • Infant-directed speech  Other influence techniques • Expansion • Recasting • Imitation o Infant- vs.Adult-Directed Speech  In infant directed speech, not only do we emotionally exaggerate the speech, but we hyperarticulate sounds and exaggerate structures Moral Development What is Morality? - Latin moralitas “manner, character, proper behaviour” - Quality of being in accord with standards of right or good conduct or a system of ideas that fall into those same categories - Principles: Fairness, justice, care Piaget and Kohlberg - “Child as a moral philosopher” - Children’s moral thinking is influenced by social relationships The Moral Development of the Child Jean Piaget - Children’s understanding of rules about games - Heteronomous versus autonomous morality - Example: Ben (10 years): “It isn’t a rule! It’s a wrong rule because it’s outside of the rules.Afair rule is one that is in the game” - Example: Vua (13 years): “It is just as fair because the marbles are far apart” (making the game equally difficult) Stages of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg - People progress in their moral reasoning (i.e., in their bases for ethical behaviour) through a series of stages - Six PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 7 – February 25, 2014 Stage Theory - Preconventional (focus on the self): young kids - Conventional (focus on the group): most adults - Post-conventional (focus on justice): ethicists Stage #1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation - Conscience = self-protection o “Will I get into trouble for doing this? Stage #2: Instrumental-Relativist Orientation - “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” - Action is judged right if it helps in satisfying one’s needs or involves a fair exchange - Example: “For a cookie, I will pick up my toys” Stage #3: good Boy/Nice Girl Orientation (Group Loyalty) - Obligation to ones family, gang, etc. - One earns acceptance by being “nice” - Conscience = loyalty - Example: “I do not eat in class because my teach does not like it” Stage #4: Law and Order Orientation - Following society as a whole - Obeying laws to maintain social order - Example: If you drink and drive your endangering the lives of others on the road, not just yourself Stage #5: Social Contract Orientation - Loyalty to truth - Conscience = reason - Example: It is important for the world to stop the killing in
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