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Lecture 12

Lecture 12

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

Typical Gender DifferencesDifference between Gender and SexGender cognitive and social differencesSex biological and physiological differences Anatomical Reproductive organsoMales have penis and females have a vaginaPhysical developmentMalesFemalesMore mature muscular growthTend to walk earlierLarger lungs and heartReach puberty earlierMore likely to be miscarried or having atypical development ie autismHigher rates of infant mortalityBrain structure oBrain LateralizationExtend to which brain function is organized across the two cerebral hemispheresMale hemispheres are more specializedFemales have language centers on both sides of the brain oBrain connectivityMost connections run between the front and back parts of the same brain hemisphere which wouldCognitive DifferencesMen better at manipulating objects constructing 3D forms mentally mapping complex figures Women tend to write and speak earliersuperior verbal abilities in early school years Social DifferencesMen tend to use more direct forms of aggression females more indirect Girls tend to be more nurturing to young children Girls more compliant to demands of parents and other adults boys are more variable Role Differences Stereotypical Gender RolesoFemalespassive loving sensitive oMalesindependent assertive dominant competitive How Does Gender Identity DevelopGender TypingThe process by which children acquire the values motives and behaviors considered appropriate for their gender in their particular cultureGender IdentityoBiological genes and hormonesoCognitive developmental stageoSocialization gender roles and gender stereotypes BiologicalChromosomes Differences Chromosomes drive 2 processes
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