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PSY210 -Feb 25, 2014.pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

What is language a communication system in which words and their written symbols combine in various ways regulated ways to produce an innite number of messages Speech perceptionadults are only able to discriminate phonemes in their native languages adults native japanese speakers have difculty hearing difference between r and l young infants are able to distinguish phonemes from most languages Early vocalizations productive abilities cooing babbling rst wordsword learning is slow at rst rst word around rst birthday 50 words by 18 months naming explosion 1824 months 200300 words by 24 months by 36 months higher the income the higher the cumulative vocabulary wordssocioeconomic status SESeducation nutrition number of words spoken Hart and Risley 1995 study Learning perspective Nativist perspective Supportlinguistic universalschildren apply rules of grammar to novel words wug testcritical periods like ducks imprinting on their motherpidgincreole when a child learns them turns into a real language Language without input deaf children whod o no receive language input who are not taught sign create their own simple languages home sign children exposed to impoverished language input improve upon their input Simon PidginsCreoles Languages invented by children with no language input can over the course of generations evolve into a real language Nicaraguan sign Animals dont learn language as readily or successfully as humans chimps raised in human family setting never begin to speak even if they get the same language input and socialization as human child interactionist perspective learning theorists AND nativists partially correct
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