PSY210 Lecture 1 January 02/2012
Scientific study of changes or continuities in an organism b/w initial conception and aging.
History and Theories:
Plato- nativist: where does human knowledge come from. Argued that our perceptual
knowledge is fallible, it doesn’t come experience. Its innate
• experience doesn’t give us knowledge we have, its innateness and different
incidents that trigger that knowledge.
Aristotle: human knowledge comes from experience: empiricist.
John Locke: empiricist: human knowledge is based on perceptual exp
Experience moulds the child into a unique individual
John Watson Tabular rasa- blank slate- mind of children (nativist)
All children are created equal
Darwin- observed his own child. Problems were that you have a small sample size and your
observation is biased. Documented development of his child, baby diaries.
G Stanley hall- founder of develop psych. inspired by Darwin, followed normative
approach. What stages a child goes through when it comes to education. Believed that
children, go according to maturational plan, which unfolds automatically, this is more
nativist. Looked at similarities
Alfred Binet- looked at differences between children. He developed the first measure of
John Watson-founded behaviourism movement, empiricist approach, experimental
approach. Very convinced that experience entirely shapes the human being. Emphasized
imp of punishment and reward in child rearing. Exp entirely shapes individual
Sigmund Freud- emphasized the role of childhood in adult behaviour. Therefore the study
of child psychology is important
Many aspects of human physical and emotional development are genetically encoded.
Early development unfolds according to a well defined plan. Experience begins before
birth and affects the behaviour of the fetus.
Aristotle, Locke, Watson - infants depend on experience to gain knowledge about the
Plato, Rousseau- infants posses extensive innate knowledge about the world. The sex of the child is solely determined by the father (provides either X or Y..mother
always contributes X), instant of fertilization determines what your child looks like, what
behaviour it will have and how much susceptibility it has to certain disease.
Outer circle- placenta, support system, inner circle embryo.
Stem cells can grow to become any part of the body.