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Lecture 4

PSY210 Lecture 4.docx

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Elizabeth Johnson

PSY210 Lecture 4 Early stages of development st zygote (1 trimester) nd embryonic (begins first ends at 2 tri fetus begins second ends at birth newborn postnatal period following birth Infant following birth, preceding toddlerhood Toddler (~18-24 months) Chromosome & Gene-Linked Abnormalities gene-linked: hemophilia. Phenylketonuria, sickle-cell anemia (not covering) chromosome abnormality: klinefelter (male has two X’s XXY, turner syndrome (female has only one XX0) down syndrome Environmental risks teratogen: environmental agent such as drug, medication, dietary imbalance or polluting substance that may cause developmental deviations in growing human organism (most threatening at embryonic stage) Teratogen Effects -exert effects largely during critical periods -each has own effects -maternal/fetal genotypes may counteract -one’s effects can intensify effects of others -some may have no effect on mothers -longer the exposure the worse it is Teratogens and Timing of their effects on prenatal development -earlier on, period of susceptibility to structural defects -later on, period of susceptibility to functional defects Environmental Dangers-Illegal Drugs Heroine, cocaine and other drugs -withdrawal symptoms in newbornswon’t respond same way normal babies do -birth defects Legal Drugs smoking (nicotine exposure) -leads to low birth weight -increase risk of SIDS sudden infant death syndrome -lower IQ scores, poor school performance, higher risk for dependency problems later in life Premature and low birth weight babies -preterm infant: born prior to 38 weeks after conception age of viability 22-26 weeks (okay for baby to be born because sufficiently developed) -weight is appropriate for gestational age -small for date infant: born after a regular gestation period of 38-42 weeks, but weighs less appropriate -lower birth weight consequence of having infant exposed to nicotine still in womb -number and severity of problems increase as birth weight and age-at-birth decreases -children born very low in birth weight have more learning problems lower levels of achievement in reading and math than moderately low-birth weight children -stimulation programmes including massage help offset negative outcomes -parental contact important for both infants and parents -long term effects are dependent on SES (socio-economic status) and other environmental factors those born to lower status families have longer effects than those who are wealthier child’s responsiveness, mother’s competence, family, stresses, family and community support Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) -result of heavy alcohol use during pregnancy -lower IQ scores, poor school performance, higher risk for dependency problems later in life, as well as low birth weight -facial features distinctive: small head, low nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, small eye openings, short nose, thin upper lip, flat midface, smooth philtrum, underdeveloped jaw Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) -causes irreversible permanent brain damage -50% or pregnancies are unplanned, and 50% of women in modern western society drink (1 in 4) -severity of symptoms, as well range of symptoms vary widely b/w FASD sufferers (some very sensitive to lights and sounds, some not) -some facial cues not even evident -difficult to predict risk, so advice is for a woman to stop drinking before she conceives Additional Risk Factors -parental age fertility difficulty increases with age miscarriage and chromosomal damage risks increase with age older fathers contribute to poor outcomes teen moms at greatest risk—less likely to go get prenatal care do not watch what their eating, might through lifestyle drink not educated as to what to do when it comes to child, child may not have same support system from mom due to immaturity -choice of diet affected by ethnicity, SES, and education Maternal Age Risk for miscarriage -as mothers age increases (45-50) miscarriage in 50% range -low risk of miscarriage at 20-24 -35-39 starts increasing Risk of chromosomal abnormality -under age of 30 not high risk -after age of 30 risk increases -40-50 risk of chromosomal abnormality really high -as time goes on, female runs out of healthy eggs and risk of chromosomal abnormality increases Healthy Children Infant Reflexes -reflex: involuntary response to external stimulation temporary: quick way of checking health of child -permanent: eye blink, response strong throughout life -withdrawal reflex: absence indicated Sciatic nerve damage temporarystBabinski: stroke bottom of baby’s foot, toes span out, absence indicated spine deficit, 1 12 months -Moro (startle reflex): drop baby, throw arms out, absence indicates CNS deficits (disappears 6-12 months) -Palmar Grasp: grab onto anything cylindrical shaped, hold tightly, absence indicates depression, disappears 3-4 months replaced by ability to voluntarily grab things -Plantar (toe grasp): absence lower spin deficits, toe curls around something it is in contact w/ disappears b/w 8-12 months -Rooting: absencedepression, disappears b/w 3-4 months, helps w/ breast feeding, stroke cheek turn and open mouth -Stepping: hold baby up to take steps, absence: depression, disappears b/w 3-4 months -Sucking: insert something into an inch of mouthsucking..weakened in babies whose mothers were medicated during childbirth, disappears at 6 months Summary: Reflexes -newborn has repertoire of reflexes which are involuntary responses to external stimuli -many of these reflexes have obvious value in helping newborn survive -many disappear during first year of life -tests of reflexes may be combined with other assessments to gauge the health, maturity, and capacities of a newborn Evaluating Newborn Health -the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale: incorporates tests of reflexes and habituation responses in children and ability of child to ignore obnoxious stimuli, calm themselves when upset identifies risks for developmental problems aids in diagnosing neurological impairments -used cross-culturally What does a newborn do all day? -two major states: sleeping (70 % of time) crying -time spent in these states changes over course of development - as children get older, children sleep more at night -cries become more based on psychological needs Sleeping -co-sleeping is controversial in N. America, but may reduce SIDS (infant sleeps with parents in same bed) -infant sleep is different than adult sleep -newborns spend considerably more time in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep auto-stimulation theory: increased REM sleep required for brain development -50% of sleep newborn experiences is REM sleep, but when child is 12 only has 1 and half hour of REM sleep Crying -3 types of cries basic angry pain -as infant ages, crying becomes less about physiological needs more about psychological needs (anger, frustration, etc.) -crying declines greatly during first year -mother can sometimes distinguish between different types of cry (angry vs. sad cry), only with own child, fathers not as good at it Moving -motor development sequence the same across infants, timing varies both maturation and experience play a role in motor development Major Motor Milestones 0-2 monthsfirst raise chin 2-4chest rise with chin 2-5child rolling over 5-8sit without support 5-10standing holding onto something+ pull themselves up into standing position 7-13walking holding furniture 10-14standing alone 11-14walks well 14-22walks up stairs Fine Motor Skills Development -voluntary reaching grasp reflex and pre-reaching -birth to 2 months voluntary -3 months + -manipulatory skills two-handed grasp and ulnar grasp -4-5 months pincer grasp -end of first year Maturation vs. experience -what drives development of motor abilities? -maturational viewpoint unfolding of a genetically programmed series of events -experiential viewpoint opportunities to practice are important Growth -changes in height and weight -rapid growth in first 2 years -growth slows until spurt in puberty Physical Growth -newborn has head that is 70% of adult sized head Sensation and Perception -perception does not just happen, it is the end result of a complex process -sensory systems serve as a filter between us and the world -information in the world has to be detectable in one or more sensory system before the brain can make use of the information -different species experience the world very differently -sensory system: olfaction, auditory, touch, smell Sensation versus Perception -objects with identical physical size look very different in other words, images with same retinal image size can look like they are different sizes due to the way our brain interpret images Sensation & Perception -some species are sensitive to perceptual info out of our range (dog) -others species pick up types of info that humans simply don’t use (homing pigeons appear to use magnetic fields to navigate) -human perception also changes across lifespan Sensation -detection of stimuli by the sensory receptors detection and discrimination Perception -interpretation of sensations in order to make them meaningful -can sometimes fool us Attention -selection of particular sensory input for perceptual or cognitive processing and the exclusion of competing input -plays a role as to what info comes into your head Initial Development of Infant Testing Methodologies Robert Fantz- founded infa
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