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Lecture 7

PSY210 lecture 7.docx

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Elizabeth Johnson

trLECTURE 7 PSY 210 ACCESS CODE: WCP HKW WSO Cognitive Development Cognition: mental activity through which human beings acquire and process knowledge -mental processes such as perception, attention, learning, memory and reasoning Jean Piaget (1896-1980) -founder of cognitive development -started off as biologist -interested in epistemology, wanted to study it scientifically What is the origin of knowledge? Piaget -first love was biology, but became fascinated with branch of philosophy known as epistemology -worked with Alfred Binet in France on development of standardized IQ tests -career was launched thanks to his keen power of observation -made thousands of observations in the views of development -Method -Observation -children of different ages got different types of questions wrong -look at the way children reason about things to understand development of cognitions -observed his own children -observations so robust that you can form the tests again to see interesting patterns of reasoning in children -Interviews -used to tell what stages of development child was in Piaget: The child as a scientist -curious human beings just trying to work out how the world works around them -Assimilation occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into a child's existing theories ⁃ child is a scientist and has theories about the world so he/she incorporates this knowledge into the world -Accommodation occurs when a child's theories are modified based on experience encounters something that doesn't fit into world so have to make adjustment -Equilibrium: child can readily assimilate most experiences into their existing theories, but occasionally have to accommodate their theories to adjust to new experiences -Periodically, children realize current theories are inadequate because they are spending more time accommodating than assimilating theory about the world, every time you encounter something new have to accommodate for that new info and change theory -when disequilibirum occurs, must reorganize theories in process known as equilibration (restores outmoded ways of thinking with qualitatively different more advanced theory) accommodating more than assimilating and have to change theory when encountering new things (disequilibirum), thus to reach equilibrium must change theory and evidence coming in makes sense Piaget -very major changes in way children view and think about world occur three times (approx. age 2, 7, and 11) sensorimotor (0-2): heavily studied with 6 sub-stages preoperational (2-7) concrete operational (7-11) formal operational (11+) Sensorimotor Stage -birth to 3 years (sometimes 2, depending on child) -Infant's knowledge of the world is based on senses and motor skills. By the end of this period, infant uses mental operations -infants experience of world is mostly sensations and motor skills Object Permanence -the realization that objects continue to exist when they are no longer visible -before 5-6 months children don't search for objects when they are hidden from view ex.) child presumably younger than 5-6 months finds blue monkey very interesting, when there is a barrier believes monkey is no longer there and looks for another object -by about 8 months infants are able to search for and uncover a hidden toy A-not-B error BUT, infants make the A-not-B error ⁃ infants will often search for hidden objects where they found it previously rather than where they last saw it placed Reaching in Dark (Video) -6 month old -need to approach questions about development from different angles -child will reach for object but not search for it -when lights out, child searches for object Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years) -sensory inputs and motor capabilities become coordinated over the course of the 6 substages Six substages stage 1: reflex activity (0-1 m)-behaviour limited to basic reflexes like crying, sucking and grasping -object concept: from birth-1 month, infants look at objects only directly in front of them stage 2: primary circular reactions (1-4 ms)-adapt reflexes to world around them..nursing require different sucking approach compared to chewing on a toy -object concept: infants do not understand the concept that objects have an existence on their own stage 3 secondary circular reactions (4-8 ms)-aware of and respond to people and objects -object concept: some awareness of permanence of objects stage 4 coordination of secondary schemas (8-12 ms)-anticipating events and adapting behaviour to get what he/she wants -object concept: able to search for completely concealed objects hidden in one location, if object is moved to another location, child continues to search in first hiding stage 5: tertiary circular reactions (12-18 ms)-experimentation and creativity A-not-B error no longer confuses children, but cannot grasp understanding this form of hiding known as invisible displacement stage 6: symbolic problem solving (18-24 ms)-solve problems in their head -fully acquire concept of object permanence, able to make inferences about positions of unseen objects even when objects have been hidden/displaced several times Summary of Sensorimotor Stage -children learn about world by acting on it -knowledge is sensorimotor not ???? Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) -child learns how to use symbols such as words and numbers to represent aspects of the world, but relates to the world only through his or her perspective (EGOCENTRIC VIEW) -children have me-centered view of the world, problems with other peoples views -use of symbols increases -pre-conceptual period (2-4 years) symbolic function: ability to make one thing stand for something else (word) symbolic/pretend play: pretend to be people they are not -intuitive period (4-7 years) deficits in reasoning: -animism: only things tha
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