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Lecture 9

PSY220H5 Lecture 9: Lecture 9

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p S Y220

Lecture 9: Aggression Thursday, March 23, 2017 12:10-3:00 PM Today (Slide 2)  What is aggression?  Sources of aggression o Humans being animals o Humans beings are more animalistic than when they're in a temper tantrum (whether that's to save your life, cause you've been wronged, protect your territory/protect, defend your honor) o Mob mentality  Fear - not thinking and it's an animalistic response (when you're angry the same thing happens)  Reactive - lost their temper  Relative Deprivation  Violent images (TV, video games) o What influences us o It's a different world now  Violent crime can decreased significantly  Punishments are much harsher (schools don't tolerate any violence) Murder Rates Vary (Slide 3)  Idea of the culture of protecting your integrity o Defend your honor - it's something that you have to do o Cultural dueling  Very large differences  England has very low (seems like a civilized society) o What the reason is -> they don't have guns (even police don't carry guns)  It makes a huge difference  The U.S. is a gun culture (born and bred to love their fire arms)  Their culture springs out of a gun rebellion  Egypt low murder rate o Military oppression  Canada - not as civilized as many other places o Semi-gun culture o Not the only factor that's at play  Can't make causal inferences  Mexico - drug cartels o One city has triple the number of homicides that Canada has in one year o They require the army to work the drug cartels o There's well established organizations down there that have money and power - corrupt  Brazil - dramatic poverty o Mixed together The Bloodiest Century (Slide 4) Mass grave from the Nanjing Massacre Aggression (Slide 5)  "Physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt someone" o Violence as the intension to inflict harm o Foresee that behaviour could cause harm o Ex: Get really drunk and go drag racing and kill someone  Not aggressive according to this definition  Social and Silent aggression (hostile vs. instrumental) o Social Aggression - Rage, loosing your temper, defending your territory/honor/loved ones  Ex: When a spouse murders their husband/wife  Men are 10x more likely  Moved by amygdala o Silent Aggression - Instrumental; don't for a reason, achieve some end, gain something  In animals, hunting behaviour (when you're stalking your prey and you clamp your teeth down on prey's neck to kill them)  Ex: Hit man kill someone to get money  Cold, dispassionate, done in a much less emotional way Theories of Aggression (Slide 6)  Pitbull bread (have a bad reputation - partially learned because of history; but almost always the humans fault, that they've been brought up poorly) o Some breads are far more pre-disposed to bad behaviour than others o All species of dogs (domesticated) come from the American red wolf - they look so different, that's from selective breading  Evidence of the power of genetics and breading and what would can do to manipulate that  We can manipulate aggression (mate the most aggressive dog with females and keep doing that)  Imprinting  Aggression is instinctive (it has to be) - mothers have to defend their babies, fathers have to defend their territory  Predatory have to hunt, survive  Is it true for human beings as well? - Freud thought so o Look at feral children  Evolutionary psychology o Aggression continues to be rewards (humans beings are no exception)  They're the ones who ate first, best place to sleep, were groomed  Social dominance hierarchy created based on the strongest/biggest  Now it's the biggest and the strongest group or biggest weapons/armies (hasn't changes)  Does it have to be this way? - there doesn't seem to be a lot of evidence to maintain long lasting peace  Damaged pre-frontal cortex o People who score high in psychopathy have low activity in pre-frontal cortex and are highly violently impulsive  Is aggression biological? o Instinct theory o Neural influences o Genetic influences o Biochemical influences Testosterone and Serotonin (Slide 7)  Salvador (1997) 1709 men  Higher testosterone level leads to greater dissatisfaction with life and looking toward the future (double the divorce rate) o People who are low in testosterone aren't happy people o Aside from violence, associated with higher levels in dissatisfaction  Less testosterone the more likely he's to report receiving emotional support o Lower testosterone - better able to receive/give emotional support  Higher testosterone in violent prisoner populations o Supermax prison (house the worst prisoners) - spend 23 hours a day in lock down  Low serotonin associated with hyper-responsiveness to aversive stimuli o Under clothes you're really sensitive - emotional sunburn  Because you're so sensitive you take is as threatening, you're reactive/paranoid/overly suspicious  You've been burned metaphorically  Hypothalamus and amygdala affected by testosterone and serotonin o True in primates and humans (bonobos, chimps, humans) o Low in serotonin - more likely to shock another person, more likely to act aggressively (violence prone) o Indicative of violent behaviour o High levels of cortisol (stress) isn't good for you - one of the main factors in heart facts which is the leading cause of death today Theories of Aggression (Slide 8/9/10)  Is aggression a response to frustration? o Frustration-aggression theory revised  Look at frustration as creating a readiness - makes us more likely to be defensive/loose out temper  Not THE cause of aggression, but it's A cause o Is frustration the same as deprivation?  No o Relative deprivation  Many children who grew up poor didn't know they were poor because they were simply aware of the things around them  Ex: Children who were sent to this beautiful summer camp were more likely to
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