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Lecture

Lecture 1-220.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY220H5
Professor
Simone Walker
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 1 January-10-13 6:34 PM What is soc psych? Why does someone do something? Why are we attracted to people? Basis of love, friendships, romantic relationships In 1980s, 1987: 2$ million fluttered down the streets - torontians collected money but returned to bank versus in 1988: 3$m in Ohio which people took off with - why is there a difference? Why don’t people help in certain social situations? Bystander effect? More people witnessing, less people likely to help - diffusion of responsibility - someone else will help so I don’t have to Situation influences behaviour Wall street versus community game  Undergrads recruited from dorms  Imaginary money was used, some replications used real  Would expect competitive to get as much as possible, while cooperative would make sure everyone gets money  However, Ross and Samuels told half they were playing wall street while other half told community - title affected participation  Community were more cooperative whether originally cooperative or competitive  Wall street, same thing  Showed same data regardless of your personality - depended on social setting  Community norms = help others  Wall street norms = selfish, cut throat, get ahead Our interpretation influences our behaviour - importance of cognition & construal  If your server takes time to come to you then acts rude, you may not come back again and you interpret their behaviour as bad service, individual's rude, or individual had a bad day  If you attribute behaviour to situation, you forgive and don’t apply to their personality or service  How we interpret influences how we react  We have an irresistible urge to explain things - why did this happen? We make the world more understandable and predictable and thus more controllable Individual differences - personality  Different people will do different things in the same situation Bio Genetic factors - roots of modern soc beh can be found in evolutionary past - evolutionary psychologists  Theory begins with variation (we are not necessarily all the same) -> inheritance: variations passed thru gens, some make life easier  Why do we find certain traits attractive? Universal attractions?  Preference linked to reproduction - ancestors with them were more healthy Every psych event is also a bio event - bio mechanisms mediate emotions: fear about envtal stimuli + release of chemicals in certain areas of the brain (such as amygdala)  Separating people into us or them occurs in a split second and we don’t have control over it  fMRIs give clues why certain behaviours take place but we cannot reduce social patterns to brain activity but bio processes should be taken into account  By understanding what areas are associated with soc behs, can better understand soc behs Application  If you were a judge or jury, what evidence would weigh more heavily? Eyewitnesses and juries will be discussed Soc psych vs. common sense  In common sense explanations we don’t test them, but in soc psych we do, & are after the fact - hindsight bias "I always knew that" vs. soc psych testing and determining which is better and are not in hindsight - able to predict behaviour Soc psych vs. sociology  Soc is concerned w groups (mostly large ones: societies) and nature & differences in and b/w them o Interested in ethnicity, poverty, economics  Soc psych is interested in individuals - what influences individuals to engage in certain behaviours o Identifying universals - what makes us all similar? W
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