UTM Summer 2013- Lecture #3
Chapter 3-Social Beliefs and Judgments
- KEEP AN OPEN MIND
- Objective reality (?), perhaps there is no objective reality.
- Some might miss the “of”s
- Subjectivity and perception biases are always there.
- There are multiple types of perception errors we will experience.
- Social perception errors
- Fundamental attribution error is fundamental (LOL). It is called the fundamental
attribution bias because it is useful and practical.
- Positivity bias keeps us hopeful and persevering.
- Self-fulfilling prophecy is when we create our world by putting out there what we read
and what we expect.
- False memories is when we create memories. Part of every memory we have is made
up. The memory works by remembering biased information at the moment we process
them or the moment we retrieve them. We take our perceptions that we have coded and
then fill in the blanks (confabulation). What we expect is what we remember.
- Finding order in random events:
- Illusory correlation: things just happen to happen together and form a causal connection.
Most of the time it is coincidence.
- Confirmatory bias is when we have an idea in our head, we spend the rest of our lives
trying to make sure it is true and look out for evidence that it is true. When information
contradicts our belief system, we choose not to believe it.
- Overconfidence stems from self-serving bias. We seek external sources to attribute
- Base rate fallacy is when we try so hard to belief system but we don’t use data to make
decision, but use emotions. Emotions are not based on fact or truth.
- Fundamental attribution error. We overestimate truth and underestimate the situation.
We are not always the best to give others the benefit of the doubt.
- Correspondence bias
- We often use stereotypes and situations to judge people. We then act a certain way
around them which provides a corresponding response from them,
- FAE plays in first impressions.
- Priming is activating particular associations in memory