UTM Summer 2013- Lecture #2
Chapter 1- Social Psychology
- What is sampling bias? When you base studies tested on university students on the
- What are placebo effects? The most powerful tool and can even cause spontaneous
remission. We have the power to sometimes “think” ourselves healthy. Your immune
system seems to function better when you are optimistic.
- What is a social desirability bias?
- What are response sets? Refers to a situation where let’s say you have questionnaires
A, B, C, D and E. Those previous questionnaires are going to affect how people answer
E. If you’ve seen ten people before you answer YES, you might feel inclined to answer
YES even if you feel NO. This is attributed to conformity.
- Experimenter bias, when the experimenter makes error to favour their hypothesis. It may
be conscious or unconscious but nevertheless, when making mistakes it favours their
hypothesis. This is why when people conduct studies, they hire research assistants to
punch in the numbers. Double-blind procedure, don’t want to tell people what the
hypothesis is. People testing the subjects, putting in the numbers might also not be told
of hypothesis to prevent tampering with the data.
Chapter 2 – The Self
- The self is made up of different aspects. Social surrounding affect self-awareness. When
a female is in a group of males, you feel more aware of your feminineness. When you
look into a mirror, you’re more self-conscious. When talking in front of a large group, you
feel self-conscious and think egocentrically, about yourself eg. Assume laughter is about
- Our self-concern motivates our behaviour. Eg. Appearance, we groom ourselves
because we care about how we look to other people.
- Self-concept. Who am I? The list we create about ourselves mainly includes positive
traits and we tend to leave out negative traits because we don’t want people to think
about us as that.
- We are looking to move our place in the dominance hierarchy (higher).
- The rule of law. The strongest doesn’t make the rule. The world would be nothing with
anarchy, no social justice, resulting in ultimate chaos.
- As human beings, we spend a lot of time trying to not to self-analysis and reflection. We
are too distracted. We have mastered throughout evolution of mortality. We try to
overcome it and master a certain level of control. It prevents anxiety and also prevents
change. It’s not in everyone’s best interest to be completely honest about everything,
cause it makes you more prone to depression.
- Our self-concept is created more by how we perceive ourselves by others. Self-esteem
isn’t based on what you think is important, it’s based off what other people value. It isn’t
true acceptance. The cosmetic, plastic surgery industries are feeding off who’s money?
- Self-esteem is off self-worth. - Self-knowledge, how can we better predict and explain ourselves? If we hold a certain
attitude, and have held it for a long time, it is more likely to stick and predict behaviour.
Otherwise, attitudes constantly change. To better predict behaviour, we must engage in
quiet self-reflection, sit and think about you. When we get information that goes against
our belief system, we don’t want to try and believe it because it requires thinking and
hard work. It’s easier to simply deny it and continue believing what you’ve already
- Social-self. Physical appearance is based on adaptation over time to our environment.
That doesn’t make any fundamental differences. Humans are followers of tribalism; we
tend to resort to our ethnic groups. Eg. Sports is a modern day form of tribalism
- Social-self, how we have to react and behave in a group.
- We see ourselves as how we appear to others and how we perceive others see us (self-
concept).Eg. Think that you’re short when other people tell you that and what you think
- Intuition has perils because it doesn’t always tell us about ourselves in the way that we
hope. First impressions are often wrong. We rely on automatic thinking and stereotypes.
Instincts can be wrong because they are based on emotional responses not truth or
facts. Ex. There is a client that thinks she is ugly. However she may be beautiful. This is
due to her father called her stupid and ugly every day; it is hard to believe that because
you’ve been told that.
- Schemas are the way we organize ideas about the world. Helps to deal with all the
things in world and helps us categorize all of them. No process thought. However, they
aren’t always true. Ex. Had a d