Class Notes (835,007)
Canada (508,866)
Psychology (4,206)
PSY220H5 (225)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Social Cognition and Social Attribution

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Emily Impett

PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 3 - September 26, 2013 Social Cognition and Social Attribution Outline of today’s lecture: - Part one: Social cognition: How do we select, interpret, and remember information about ourselves and others? - Part two: Social attribution: How do we form impressions of and make judgments about other people? Social Cognition Social Cognition - What is the key premise of social cognition? - What are schemas? - What are heuristics? - Are we idiots? What is the key premise of social cognition? Key Premise - The human mind has a limited capacity to process social information - 56-4632 o Our short term memory tends to remember plus or minus 7 words - As a result, people are “cognitive misers” - We take shortcuts to understand our world What are schemas? What is a Schema? - A mental structure that helps people organize knowledge about a stimulus - Makes the world more predictable (we know what to expect) Soloon Asch - Group 1: intelligent, skillful, industrious, warm, determined, practical, and cautious o Generous? 91% (good-natured and humorous too) - Group 2: intelligent, skillful, industrious, cold, determined, practical, and cautious o Generous? 9% 4 Things Schemas Do - Guide our Attention o There is a lot of info out there for us to take in, and schemas help us determine what is important to keep a note of - Influence our memory - Provide us with “scripts” so that we know what to expect - Profoundly influence our behavior Waitress/Library Study (Example of influencing our memory) - Participants watched a video of a husband and wife having dinner together - ½ of the participants told that women was librarian - ½ told that woman was a waitress - Later, took a quiz assessing their memories - Some features fit schema of waitress, - Results: PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 3 - September 26, 2013 o Participants who were assigned that the woman was a waitress, they remembered her drinking beer, and received romance novel as a gift o Participants who were assigned that the woman was a librarian, they remembered her drinking wine, and received a history book as a gift Scripts - A schema that describes that expected sequence of events in a well-known situation, such as going to a restaurant - What if we don’t have a script for something? o People get confused Self-Fulfilling Prophecy - Something that happens when we: - (a) Have an expectation about what another person is like, which… - (b) Influences how we act toward that person, which… - (c) Causes that person to behave consistently with our original expectations Elementary School Study - IQ test given all students in school - Teachers are told that some students scored high - “Bloomers” were in fact chosen randomly - How did the bloomers and other students do in school? - Teachers said that… o They spent slightly less time with the students labeled as bloomers than the “other” students - Teachers actually o Gave bloomers more personal attention, encouragement, and support  A warmer emotional environment for them o Gave bloomers more material to learn and material that is more difficult o Gave bloomers more and better feedback on their work o Gave bloomers more opportunities and a longer time to respond - Who Got Smarter? o The graph shows that everyone’s IQ got smarter o Also, the “bloomers” o The effect of the teachers expectations of the “bloomers”, which impacted the “bloomers” to preform better and increase their IQ Recap: - We are cognitive misers - Schemas help us make sense of the world - But they can lead to important bases - They influence how we feel and what we do - They can be self-fulfilling What are heuristics? Heuristics - Mental shortcuts that people use to make judgments quickly, though sometimes inaccurately, for decision about uncertain events Class Poll (example of heuristic) - Which series of coin tosses is more likely? PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 3 - September 26, 2013 o (a) Sequence A: HHTTHTHTTH o (b) Sequence B: HHHHHTTTTT o (c) The sequences are equally likely Representativesness Heuristic - The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles that typical case Why Knowing about this Matters - A patient comes into the office and complains of all the things that a person with angina would complain of, but he was the picture of health - He was in his 40s, trim, athletic, didn’t smoke and had no family history of heart attack - The doctor wrote off the patient’s chest pains as “overexertion” - The next day, the patient had a heart attack Class Poll (example of availability heuristic) - Does the letter “r” occurs more often as: o The first letter of a word o The third letter of a word - People overwhelming choose a o Because it is easier to generate words that begin with the letter “r”, - In reality, b is more common Availability Heuristic - The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which relevant instances come to mind Planning Fallacy - The tendency for people to be unrealistically optimistic about how quickly they can complete a project - Students asked to predict when they would complete their honours thesis o As accurately as possible o If everything went as poorly as it possibly could - 1/3 of students who completed thesis by the time they had estimated - ½ of students who Poor Planning (example of planning fallacy) - Opera house in Sydney Australia o Projected: 6 years; $7 million o Actual: 16 years, $102 million - Montreal Olympics in 1976 o Projected: $120 million for the whole Olympics o Actual: $120 for special stadium with special roof (and it wasn’t even built until 1989!) - We are not good with predicting of how long things will take and cost Are we Idiots? NO! - The human mind is ingeniously constructed to allow us to make automatic judgments - Schemas and heuristics are helpful a lot of the time, but in many cases they are not - But we are not helpless victims of how our minds work! PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 3 - September 26, 2013 Automatic and Controlled - We don’t just respond to events in our world automatically (although this does happen at times) - We also possess the ability to think effortfully and deliberately about our social world o We can consider multiple alternatives o We search for disconfirming information Social Attributions Key Premise of Social Attribution - We are meaning makers: we constantly “Ask why” people behave the way that they do - We make att
More Less

Related notes for PSY220H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.