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PSY220 LEC 7.docx

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Emily Impett

LECTURE 7 October 31, 2013 EMOTIONS PLAN FOR TODAY  Emotions: What are they? How do they affect us? How do we deal with them? Emotions are such an important part of our lives (BUT of course, you knew this already) 1. What is an emotion? 2. Are emotions universal or culturally specific? 3. What effects do our emotions have on us? 4. How do we regulate our emotions? 1. WHAT IS AN EMOTION? 4 BASIC PROPERTIES i. Brief ii. Signaled through face, touch, voice iii. Specific Cause iv. Helps achieve goals i. BRIEF ii. SIGNALED THROUGH FACE, TOUCH, VOICE iii. SPECIFIC CAUSE  We feel emotions about specific people and events  Focus of emotional experience = intentional object  Usually have a clear sense of the thing that caused the emotion - Emotions tend to have a specific cause - Tend to feel emotions for specific people and events - Focus of our emotion experience = intentional object = thing that caused us to feel a particular emotion - Emotions are relatively Un and tend to have a specific cause - Emotions are signaled by voice, facial expression, and touch - There are other ways to signal our emotions o Text book example of research - Can be expressed more by touch [such as gratitude] Emotions can help us achieve our goals 1 LECTURE 7 October 31, 2013 iv. Functions of Emotions: Helps Achieve Goals  Disgust: avoid contamination of illness  Fear: Maintain physical safety  Anger: Right social wrongs and restore justice  Guilt: Make amends when we have harmed others  Gratitude: reward others for their cooperative actions  Compassion: Show concern for and help others - Disgust signals to us that something is potentially really gross [functions of emotions - Gratitude = motivate us to give thanks - Compassion = motivate us to … - Discussed more in textbook 2. ARE EMOTIONS UNIVERSAL OR CULUTRALLY SPECIFIC? Important ways in which emotions can differ across cultures A. Evolutionary approach: Emotions enabled adaptive responses to threats to survival and to enable people to form relationships critical to gene replication B. Cultural approach: Emotions influenced by roles, institutions and socialization practices that vary across cultures A. EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH Charles Darwin: Natural Selection of Emotions  Emotional expressions we observe today derive from patterns of behavior that were useful in our evolutionary past - Emotions evolved us to form relationships to help us pass on our genes - There should be a great deal of universality in emotion Testing Universality: Paul EKMAN  Six emotions [Happiness, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, and Fear] presented to people from five countries—Japan, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, US  Accuracy rates btw 80-90% EKMAN – took up the task to see if this is true - Tested universality: Presented these pictures to people from 5 countries - Found that people were overwhelmingly correct in identifying emotions But what about  Most people had been exposed to Western media  Challenge: find culture with little or no exposure to Western media - Potential issues  even though he surveyed people from different countries, still exposed to western media  So he set out to find a culture who had never been exposed to western culture Off to Papua New Guinea  Ekman lived with Fore tribe for 6 months  Again, accuracy rates were 80-90% for each of the 6 emotions  Also had members of tribe show emotions, then had Westerners judge - He had people imagined themselves in the story told  Accuracy rates were high again EXCEPT for fear 2 LECTURE 7 October 31, 2013 More Evidence  Emotional expressions in other animals  Emotional expressions among the blind - Covered in text book - Tends to be a striking amount of similarity btw humans and animals - Blind people express emotions the same way as those who can see o Suggests that emotions are very deeply rooted in us B. CULTURAL APPROACH Emotions differing across cultures  Inuit of Alaska (Eskimos) were never seen expressing anger  Japanese wives of Samurai soldiers in 17 century would smile upon receiving news that their husbands had died nobly in battle Testing Cultural Specificity Three main ways cultures tend to vary in expression of emotion… i. Emotional accents: culturally specific ways that people express emotions ii. Focal emotions: Emotions most commonly experienced in lives of members of a culture iii. Ideal emotions and display rules: Culturally specific rules that govern how, when, and to whom to express emotions  People in particular culture idealize and value Evidence… i. Emotional accents - India and US o Emotions of embarrassment and tongue bite o People can develop particular ways of expressing emotion particular to that culture Focal Emotions - Cultures can vary in which emotions are focal or commonly expressed  Certain cultures tend to be defined by a particular emotion - Tibet-kind, Japan-modest - Experienced in greatly frequency - China  at least 113 words that refer to shame  suggesting that these more self-conscious emotions are focal within the Chinese people Idealization 3 LECTURE 7 October 31, 2013 - Cultures can differ in the extent to which they idealize and value particular emotions - West  excitement and enthusiasm are really highly value o Pursuing a culturally ideal of o Shown in hobbies, and drug addiction, and choice of music - EAST contentment and modesty o Provide the maintenance of smooth and harmonious relationships 3. WHAT EFFECTS DO OUR EMOTIONS HAVE ON US? - I’m mad with love ~ sick with envy - Rather than getting in the way of judgments, emotions are critical for making decisions  in order to make good decisions - Those with damage to frontal lobes failed to consult their emotions of fear and anxiety or experience sympathy (don’t help people in need) FEELINGS-AS-INFORMATION PERSPECTIVE  Many judgments are too complex for us to thoroughly review all the relevant evidence  How do you feel about _________?  So, we rely on their emotions to provide us with information about events and conditions within our social environment - When people are thinking about how satisfied they are, bc there is too much info to pay attention to, we rely on our emotion to provide us with additional information - To test this: sunny vs. gloomy days
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