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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Groups and Canadian Spotlight

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Emily Impett

PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 10 – November 28, 2013 First half of the lecture – Groups (with guest lecture) Second half of the lecture – Canadian Spotlight (with Prof) Groups – Guest Lecture Today’s Plan - What are groups? - Group effects on the individual o Social facilitation o Deindividuation - Groups and identity o Social identity theory o Common in-group identity model What is a Group? - A collection of individuals who have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some degree Groups Vary in Entitativity - The perception of an aggregate of individuals as a group o To possess some common attributes o And be seen as a coherent unit - Greater entitativity based on o Similarity in physical traits  Example: Skin color o Concerted collective behavior  Example: Same movement/ cause Advantages of Group Living - For our ancestors, group living offered: o Protection from predators o Efficiency in food acquisition o Assistance in child rearing o Defense against human aggressors - Fulfills a psychological need to belong o Being around others can be fulfilling to us as well Disadvantages of Group Living - Intergroup competition and status differentials emerge - Dominant and dominated groups merge o Race o Socioeconomic - Intergroup Bias o Stereotyping o Prejudice o Discrimination Groups and the Individual - The mere presence of groups can affect behavior Norman Triplett (1898) PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 10 – November 28, 2013 - Considered the first study in social psychology - He looked at speed records of the racing board of the league of American Wheelmen o He saw that when racing against others, their racing times were faster than racing alones - Children asked to reel fishing lines as fast as possible o Half were alone o Half in the presence of another children - Children tended to reel faster in the presence of others o Presence of others seem to facilitate performs Social Facilitation - This seems to occurs in animals as well - However, the presence of other does not always enhance behavior o Sometimes others can make you feel nervous When Other Undermine Performance (video) - Merely having other people around doesn’t necessarily make us better perform Why does the presence of others at times help and at other times hurt performance? Zajonc’s Model of Social Faciliation - Two premises o Mere presence of others increases arousal o Arousal enhances whatever response is dominant What is a “Dominant Response?” - Whatever response you’re most likely to make o If your dominant response is correct, then arousal will enhance performance o If you dominant response is incorrect, then arousal will undermine performance Experts vs. Novices - People who have practiced gymnastics for years, the mere presence of others will arouse them and their dominant response is relatively easy compared to someone who hasn’t been practicing as long Testing Zajonc’s Theory - Created 2 different mazes o Simple: promote dominant response for the cockroaches (to run straight and towards the light o Complicated: promoted a response that was not dominant for the cockroaches (to run straight and then turn right to exit from the maze) - Relative time in the same maze (when comparing how fast they ran when in the presence of others and when in presence of others) - Results: o Simple: cockroaches ran faster in the presence of others in the simplier maze (dominant response) o Complex: in presence of others, they ran slower Social Facilitation - The effect – both positive or negative – of the presence of others on performance PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 10 – November 28, 2013 Deindividuation - When we are deindividuated, our behavior is quite different than when we are made self-aware or personally responsible for our actions - Reduced sense of individual identity and self-control that occurs in large groups - Getting “lost in the crowd” - Conditions: o Group presence o Anonymity o Diffusion of responsibility (no one is responsible for a particular action) - Example: Online where you are able to be anonymous - Behavior: o Impulsivity o Irrationality o Emotionality o Antisociality Suicide Baiting - Urging suicidal individuals to kill themselves by jumping from building or bridges - Mann (1981) o Looked at 15 years of newspaper accounts of suicide jumps o 21 total instances o 10 accounts of suicide baiting - Mann (1981) looked at: o Darkness o Group presence Deindividuation and Suicide Baiting - Increase when darker it was, as the group size increased Deindividuation and Violence - Study examined relation between anonymity and violence in Northern Ireland o Specifically looked at use of disguises - Silk (2003) o Media reports over 30 months (1994-1996) o Examined 500 violent attacks  206 disguised their identities o Found a positive relationship between use of disguise and aggression  Severity of injury  Vandalism committed  Multiple victims - Relationship between disguise and aggression o When disguised was involed in the attacks, there was more aggression and more victims involved compared to when they were non-disguised Summary - In sum, deindividuation studies show that we lose a sense of self within large, anonymous groups - However, we also derive a sense of identity from the groups to which we belong PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 10 – November 28, 2013 Social Identity Theory - Groups  Self-concept and Self-esteem - We don’t rely on ourselves for who we are as a person; but the social groups we belong to define who we are - Can shape our values and philosophies in life, we make friends - Can be important and enriching to us The “Dark Side” of Group Living - Intergroup bias o People tend to favor people in the ingroup at the expense of outgroups - Dominant and dominated groups emerge o Stereotyping o Prejudice o Discrimination o War Is there a way to overcome intergroup bias? Common Ingroup Identity Model - Creating an overriding shared identity for members of different groups - Recategorize members of different outgroups as members of the same, more inclusive group o Example: we are all apart of the UTM community, all interested in social psychology - Reduce intergroup bias through imparting ingroup favoritism on outgroup members - Redirects positive beliefs, feelings, and behaviors that are usually for ingroup members to former outgroup members - Recategorization an “us” versus “them” mentality to a more superordinate “we” Human Identity and Forgiveness - Wohl and BRascombe (2005) o Jewish participants took part in study o Read about Holocaust framed in either of two ways:  As aggression of German against Jews  As aggression of one human group against another human group - In the human group condition: o Jewish participants were more inclined to forgive Germans for the holocaust o Jewish participants were less likely to assign collective guilt to Germans who were not a part of the Holocaust - Due to descreased perception of uniqueness of harm Implications - Historical relations between different groups persist in the present day and affect present day intergroup relations - Seeing a common humanity can decrease the likelihood of maintain negative historical relations between present day group members Global Social Identity and Global Cooperation - Buchan et al. (2011) PSY220H5 – Social Psychology Lecture 10 – November 28, 2013 o Can social identity motivate cooperation for the global collective? o Multinational study  US, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, Iran  Age: 18-75  SES: low, medium, and high - Rated: o Attachment to o Identification with o Closeness to - Related to three different social identities o Immediate community (i.e., Kazan) o Country (i.e., Russia) o The world as a whole - Public goods dilemma o Give 10 tokens for a decision o Contributed  Personally  Keep $   Largest personal return  Locally  Doubles then divided equally among participants   Larger return only if most/all people contribute  Globally  Tripled then divided equally among participants   Largest return only if most/ all people contribute - Across the countries, having a global social identity predicted greater contribution to the global collective Implications - Global social identity can motivate individuals to maximize collective outcomes and contribute to collective goods - Identifying and connecting with others at the global level can promote addressing problems that involve global interdependence o Climate change o Destruction of rain forests o Instability in international markets Common Inroup Identity Model - Seeing a common ingroup: o Can promote positive relations between individuals of different groups  More forgiveness 
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