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PSY220 LEC 10.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Emily Impett

LECTURE 10 GROUPSCANADIAN SPOTLIGHT Part 1Guest Lecture Groups Part 2Prof Lecture Canadian SpotlightGROUPS Humans are social creaturesTodays Plan 1 What are groups 2 Group effects on the individual A Social facilitationB Deindividuation 3 Groups and identity A Social identity theory B Common ingroup identity modelWHAT IS A GROUP A collection of individuals who have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some degreeGROUPS VARY IN ENTITATIVITYThe perception of an aggregate of individuals as a group o To possess some common attributes o And be seen as a coherent unitGreater entitativity based on o Similarity in physical traitsEx Skin color o Concerted collective behaviorEx Same movementcauseADVANTAGES OF GROUP LIVINGFor our ancestors group living offered o Protection from predators o Efficiency in food acquisitiono Assistance in child rearing o Defense against human aggressorsFulfills a psychological need to belongDISADVANTAGES OF GROUP LIVINGIntergroup competition and status differentials emergeDominant and dominated groups emerge o Race o Socioeconomic statusIntergroup Bias o Stereotyping o Prejudice o Discrimination 1 LECTURE 10 GROUPSCANADIAN SPOTLIGHT GROUP EFFECTS ON THE INDIVIDUAL Groups and the IndividualThe mere presence of groups can affect behaviorNORMAN TRIPLETT 1898Racing Board of the League of American WheelmenChildren asked to reel fishing lines as fast as possible o Half were alone o Half in the presence of another childChildren tended to reel faster in the presence of others A SOCIAL FACILITATIONHoweverThe presence of others does not always enhance o When others undermine performanceWhy does the presence of others at times help and at other times hurt performanceZajoncs Model of Social FacilitationTwo premises 1 Mere presence of others increases arousal 2 Arousal enhances whatever response is dominant What is a dominant responseWhatever response youre most likely to make If you dominant response is correct then arousal will enhance performance If your dominant response is incorrect then arousal will undermine performance Expert vs NovicesTesting Zajoncs Theory SOCIAL FACILITATIONthe effectboth positive or negativeof the presence of others on performance2
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