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Lecture

PSY220: Lecture 1- Intro Social Psychology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY220H5
Professor
Simone Walker
Semester
Winter

Description
Jan 9 2014 PSY220- Intro: Social Psychology Week 1 True altruism: engaging in helpful ways that doesn’t benefit us. What is Social Psychology? • The scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people. • All about social Influence: can be direct or indirect/ subtle. Don’t have to be present but can also be in form of mental representation. Parents don’t have to be right next to you if you want to engage in a particular activity. • Advertisement: adds on tv/internet/ print-adds. • Attractive people are more persuasive • Someone trying to get you to do something that you don’t want to do. • Direct influence. • Relatively young science: separate discipline in early 20 centuries • Kurt Luin • Contemporary social psychology emphasizes 5 MAJOR THEMES: • The power of the situation • Ex. Ross & Samuels (1993) Wall Street Game vs. Community Game • Competitive undergrads and cooperative undergrads invited to play a game in which they took turns allocating money between themselves and others. • Interested in how students played the game • Competitive strategy • Cooperative strategy • The importance of cognition or construal • The power of the person • The importance of biological processes • The applicability of social psychological principles: • Workplace/classroom: reduce stereotyping prejudice. Typical Prisoner’s Dilemma Cooperate: You both will win and benefit Defet: You benefitting and other loosing. Outcome depends in what you do as well as what the other person does. There’s trust involved. BEST: Both should cooperate. Both will win money. Result: The Strategy chosen disnt depend if they were chosen as cooperative or competitive. It depends on the name of the game. Community games: Both cooperated more in than if they game was called “Wall street”. They behaved over and ubove their personality trait. • 1. The power of the situation • Ex. Ross & Samuels (1993) Wall Street Game vs. Community Game • Competitive undergrads and cooperative undergrads invited to play a game in which they took turns allocating money between themselves and others. • Interested in how students played the game • Competitive strategy • Cooperative strategy • • Wall Street Game: ~1/3 cooperated> competition comes to mind. Ruthless. Maximize own profit. • Community Game: ~2/3 cooperated> BRINGS TO MIND SOCIAL NORMS. APPROPRIATE TO HELP EACH OTHER OUT. • Whether the participant was competitive or cooperative did not matter! • Strong social norms led participants to construe (interpret) the situation in the same way. • 2. The importance of cognition or construal • Construal • The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world • Arrangements of gaps in shape: perceptual apparatus fills in the gaps so we see something else. The Gaps in reality are called schemas: mental structures. We use these schemas to guide our lives. Ex. Stereotyping. • 3. The power of the person • Internal forces like personal attitudes and dispositions matter on peoples thoughts. • Dispositions • Internal factors such as beliefs, values, personality traits or abilities that guide a person’s behaviour • Ex. Political attitudes and voting behavior • Ex. Personality Dispositions: • Nelson Mendela: • Ex. Correspondence bias (when we people’s behavior follows from their personality) and fundamental attribution error(over- estimate the internal factors that may cause another person’s behavior and underestimate the external factor- situational factors) • 4. The importance of biological processes • Genetic factors play an important role in social behaviour • Evolutionary psychology • A relatively new branch of psychology that seeks to investigate the potential role of genetic factors in various aspects of human behavior • 5. The importance of biological processes • Genetic factors play an important role in socal behavior • Evolutionary psychology • A Jan 9 2014 PSY220- Intro: Social Psychology Week 1 • Why do we find some people physically attractive? • People who have more symmetrical facial features. • Why? – Our ancestors had a preference who liked symmetrical faces> they preferred it. Those that didn’t have SFF They didn’t have the preferences. SFF reproduced with SFF> They passed on the Preference as well as the genes ( lacked abnormality). Those that didn’t have the SFF genes had abnormalities and died off earlier. • Every psychological event is also a biological event • Social neuroscience • An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviour • Ex. How bullies perceive other’s pain? • Social Psychology vs. Common Sense Folk Wisdom • A group of 5 must work together to complete a puzzle in 10 minutes • What happens? • They cant complete the puzzle. • Too many peple working on the same thing. • They complete the puzzle with time to spare • Two heads are better than one. Problems with common sense • Different competing explanations: more than one explanation. • Little agreement about which explanation is correct • Cannot verify which is correct • Often invoke common sense explanation AFTER we know the facts • Hindsight bias • Tendency to believe , once they’ve learned an outcome of something, that that particular outcome was obvious all along Social psychology • Employs the scientific method to determine which explanation/theory is correct • Why do we do things the way we do. • Use this method to support their hypothesis. • Not just used to explaining behavior but also is focused on predicting human behaviour given a particular situation Sociology • Concerned with groups (small to very large, e.g. societies), particularly societies • Interested Between society differences • Why is the murder rate higher in the US than in Canada? • Within society differences • How do changes in Canadian society influence trends in violent crime within Canada? Social psychology • Concerned with the individual and how social factors influence how the individual thinks, behaves, and feels • Aims to identify universal properties of human nature that make everyone susceptible to social influences. • Relies more heavily on experiments in which some factor is manipulated ( many factors used by sociologist are difficult or unethical to manipulate) Personality psychology • Focuses on individual differences: ways in which we are different: disposition, personality traits: BIG 5 TRAITS. • Why are some people more aggressive than others? • Can we characterize differences in personality using 5 broad traits/dispositions? • Focuses on private internal functioning • Correlational methods are often employed • EX. Jonestown Guyana • Nearly 800 members dies after being commanded by their leader to drink a kool-aid & Cyanide Mixture. • Why did this happen? • The victims were all psychotiv or suffered from mental illness • Aims to identify universal properties of human nature that make everyone susceptible to social influence • Relies more heavily on experiments in which some factor is manipulated (many factors used by sociologist are difficult or unethical to manipulate) Social psychology • Takes into account the role of the situation or social influence when explaining behaviour • Avoids the Fundamental Attribution Error • Emphasizes the psychological processes shared by most people that make them susceptible to social influence. • Experimental methods are often used Explanation: Look at the social situation- Jan 9 2014 PSY220- Intro: Social Psychology Week 1 1. Power and influence of charismatic Leader: Set himself up as the authority figures. 2. Persuasive elements (eg. Source, message: Better place in the hearafter, audience-Younger people are more influenced, people are of lower status and it appealed to them, Middle status as well – more idealistic) 3. Nature of living in an isolated society: Left their family away from home. Had very few influences from outside world. RESEARCH METHODS IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: Many times or first time? MANY TIMES: mirror exposure effect: the liking of a stimulus increases the more we are exposed to it. More likely to like people better if they asked us a favor and we agreed. Group influence: risky shift: decisions made in a group are riskier. Correlational Method • The technique
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