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Lecture 5

PSY290 Lecture 5.docx

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Ayesha Khan

Chapter 5 Notes • Pg 122- table 4.3 • Select 3 drugs-4.3, know details • Psycho active drug- influence neurons • Even if drug is in PNS- is connected to the brain and the spinal cord • Psychoactive substance • Neurotransmitter, neurohormones, neuromodulators- distance if the difference • Neurotransmitters- diffuse across synapse that is close by • Neuromodulators- have ability to go some distance away, 2/3 synapse away • Neurohormones- able to go far, go the further, released in the brain ( reproductive system effect- and affect the ovaries), capitalize movement in the blood • There are certain traits that allow for the identity of the neurotransmitter/hormone/modulators • Take that chemical out into a petri dish, will have the same effects on other cells • Presents of an enzyme in a synaptic cleft can recycle a neurotransmitter • Classification system is based on what it looks like and what it made of • Small molecule neurotransmitters- Ach, • Monoamines- building blocks of proteins • Amino acid- more than one building block, not only one unit • Common size and building blocks, get lumped together • Neuropeptides- pain reductions- endorphins; substance P-inflammation, damage/pain in the system • CCK- gut importance, digestion of fat and protein • Insulin- hormone glucose metabolism, allows cell to uptake that glucose • Vasopressin- regulation of water and salt in blood • Oxytocin- bonding hormone, release at birth, at pair bond • Gaseous neurotransmitter- don’t need to bind, can diffuse • Nitric acid- communication between neurotransmitter • Carbon monoxide- dampening in neuronal activity • Table 4.1- features of small molecule neurotransmitters • Synthesis- where are they made • Cell body to axon terminal- transport • Recycling of vesicles- allows for quicker synthesis • Cell body makes synthesis for neuropeptides • Activation ho make action potential are needed for it to be released • SMT- not a lot of action potentials are they are recycled • Glial cells- level of neuropeptides • Fast neurotransmission- made quickly • Neuromodulation- neuropeptides, also function as neurotransmitters, ca withstand a lot and not broken down easily • ACh- cholinergic system • Cholingergic nuclei- release ACh, cell bodies located in: pons, midbrain, bottom of basal forebrain • All over the forebrain • Green arrows are where the axons are going • ACh- formed by 2 precursors, choline- fat in diet and liver, Acetyl CoA- generate by metabolism of fats and sugars- by-product—all from diet- produce of acetylcholine and Coenzyme A • All happening in the axon terminal • Fat deprivation affects the production of ACh • In the axon terminal- there are lots of enzymes • Which break down neurotransmitters • Needs to be packaged in order to be protected from enzymes • Receptors- protein structure, means category, ch9line transport is a receptor in the vesicle membrane- in charge of packaging • Need blocking of packaging of acetylcholine into vesicles- VAChT • One transport the main one- VAChT, the other is – choline transporter: reuptake of choline and acetate , when acetylcholine is broken up in the synapse • Nicotinic cholinergic receptors and muscarinic - post synaptic neuron, bind to • Acetylcholine • AChE- break down of ACh • Vesamicol- drug that decreasing Acetycholine of packaging into vesicles • ACh- involved in muscular movement • Chemicals in the environment, that influence the release of lack of release of Ach • Black widow- substance in venom, affects the releases of more ACh in the synapse • In a healthy person too much Ach – sweating, vomiting, nausea, tremors its not fatal • Too much sweating= organ failure • Not enough of release of ACH- canned foods are not properly preserved, bacteria builds up, botulinum toxin • Bacteria in dented can change the shape of the metal of the can • BT binds to vesicle , prevents the release of ACh, • BT -Tremors occur, muscle paralysis, gut failure, lungs- affixation • Botulinum toxin- Botox, muscle paralysis-chronic contractions blocks the release of Ach, healthy amount is injected in body • By product of ACh by Acetylcholinesterase is choline and ? ---in slide • PNS- ANS, fight or flight • Alzheimer's disease- dementia, forgetfulness, solving problem, cognitive tasks effected • Autopsy of Alzheimer's patient (10 yrs)- loss of neurons in pons, midbrain or basal forebrain • Plaque between neurons • Pattern in where the neurons start to decrease • Neurons are decrease, means Ach is also decreasing in that area • Ach is important in cognitive functions- forebrain regions • Ach has cognitive function not only muscle movement • ACH decreasing- give patient building blocks of raw materials, challenge; peripheral metabolism- enzymes out of central system (gut, stomach), break down of the products as diet passes through the internal gut system • Cholinesteras
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