Humans cause a lot of genocide, and have the ability to harm others.
On the other hand, people also have the capacity to save lives.
Oskar Schindler saved Jews during holocaust.
Irena Sendler also saved and smuggled Jewish children into Poland.
it is very widespread.
Violence can lead to sever consequences for all members of society.
Agresison is an intentional action aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another licing being
whi is motivated to avoid such treatments
Types of aggression
Instrumental (cold) Aggression motives other than hostility. E.g. to acquire wealth, or
Hostile (hot) Aggression. Motivated by hostility and anger.
When an individual provokes another.
How would we respond? A lot of studies show that when we are provoked, we act in line with
“an eye for an eye”.
We do not respond like that, however, if we do not attribute hostile intentions from the individual
who provoked you. We do not necessarily reciprocate in this situation.
Sometimes, people tend to respond a lot more aggressively when provoked.
2. Frustration we compete, and we may feel frustrated when we cannot attain an important goal.
We tend to feel helplessness, but could also lead to aggression.
E.g. Waiting in line study people were interrupted by somebody who cut the line by
varying position in line.
Those who were closet to their goal were more aggressive than those who were further.
Physiological arousal could allow us to feel heat, which could lead to aggression.
Heat could result in increased level of anger.
E.g. Driving physiological heat results in increased likelihood in honking (if people do not have
E.g. Crimes are on higher rates in the summer, more than in winter and other seasons.
Such as murder and rape.
E.g. Batters are more likely to het hit by balls when it is hotter outside, especially when
temperature was above 90 F.
Influences blood chemistry, and brain function.
It could reduce anxiety, and ability to control action.
We fail to think of future consequences of our actions.
E.g. rate of violence in marriage is higher if a spouse drinks excessively.
E.g. bullies are more likely to report alcohol abuse.
Dating aggression is more likely among those who consume a lot of alcohol.
Experimental Study those in the drunk group drank vodka until reaching a limit. Those in
control group consumed drink that smelled like alcohol.
Drunk Drama Queen Effect intoxicated participants fell that they were feeling more
negative emotions than about their partner’s emotions. They viewed the conflict between
themselves and their partners more negatively. Alcohol related crimes reducing alcohol consumption by 10% could result in less
aggression and crime.
5. Social Exclusion and Bullying
Studies of school shootings show that all perpetrators tended to feel socially isolated in some
It is impossible to know causal relationships. Is it the social exclusion that leads to bullying, or
that those who are more aggressive are more likely to face social exclusion.
Experimental Study Getting to Know You Experiment where individuals work in a
lab, and are asked to write out whom they would like to work with. They are assigned to
accepted, and rejected groups. Results showed that participants were made to play a computer
game with another person. Those who played games, and were rejected by their peers showed
more aggression when playing with a confederate. There are noises related to blasting a player
with an unpleasant noise. They were more likely to blast someone they did not know.
6. Aggressive Cues
Aggressive cues could lead to increased aggression.
E.g. availability of handguns increases levels of homicide.
E.g. Seattle vs. Vancouver. Seattle does not restrict gun use, but Vancouver does restrict it.
They, however, have similar rates of general crime, climates, populations etc.
Experimental Study Gun Study study where individuals were told to shock others,
depending on their performance. Pariticpants were made angry by the partners getting given 10
shocks. The participants were switched around afterwards.
Gun condition participants can see guns and revolvers.
Neutral object badminton rackets
Control object no objects near shock machine.
Results when people were angry, they administered more electric shocks when guns were
These findings may suggest that cues that indicate aggression could incite aggression
and behaviour related to it.
Aggressive cues could be priming people. Subtle cues may affect behaviour.
Violence and Aggression in the Media
Three myths about media and violence
1. The level of violence in mass media mirrors violence in real
Higher levels of murder on TV than in the real world (1000 times more). On TV, the most frequent crimes are murder, whereas in the real world, property is the most
common. Property crimes are not as much on TV on the other hand.
Level of violence in media does not mirror violence in the real world.
Mass media provides a distorted image of violent image of reality.
2. Violent media are cathartic, can reduce aggression
Catharsis people can blow off stream when they are in a safe environment.
E.g. Kip Kinkel’s Journal he felt he could vent by using making explosives.
He killed his parents later, and school mates.
Advice from pop Psychologists
Pound a pillow.
Tear up a phone book.
Although catharsis could be a good strategy, it does not always worth.
Venting could keep aggressive thoughts alive,
and active in the memory.
Arousal levels remain high.
The truth violent media could increase aggression.
E.g. Violent videogames