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Chapter 5: Genetics

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ulrich Schimmack

Lecture 12&14-genetics and envt 1 Genetics Galen and Hippocrates believed in the 4 humours that were responsible for particular personalities: - BLOOD: causes the sanguine or cheerful temperament - BLACK BILE: causes the melancholic or depressed temperament - YELLOW BILE: causes the choleric or angry temperament - PHLEGM: causes the calm or phlegmatic temperament Neurotransmitters: - Biochemical substance that is involved in the communication among neurons - One neuron transmits a message to another neuron. The electrical impulse travels through the axon terminal and cause the neurotransmitter substance to be released in the synapse. The neurotransmitters are absorbed by the dendrite of the other neuron. - Electrical impulse travels along the axon towards the axon terminal. - Depending on which neurotransmitter is involved, the molecules can either encourage the neuron to send the electrical impulse to the next neuron or discourage it from sending the message. Cloningers theory: - Central nervous system is composed of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD - The three neurotransmitters active in this system are DOPAMINE, SEROTONIN AND NOREPINEPHRINE DOPAMINE & NOVELTY SEEKING: - Facilitates the transmission of signals of reward. - Helps neurons send messages in response to things that feel exciting or pleasurable. - People with highly active dopamine system are excitement seeking, always looking for adventure, impulsive, and are Novelty Seeking - People whose dopamine system is inactive are not particularly motivated to find fun and variety. - Parkinson disease has inactive dopamine system SEROTONIN & HARM AVOIDANCE: - Serotonin inhibits the transmission of signals of punishment - It prevents neurons from sending messages in response to things that feel harmful or unpleasant - People who have a serotonin system that is INACTIVE will try to avoid pain and anxiety; they are referred to as harm avoidance. Personality traits associated with this are worry, pessimism, and shyness. - PROZAC: activates the serotonin system. Taking this drug decreases negative emotions such as depression
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