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Personality - Lec 6

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Behaviorist Perspectives and Learning Theories Gonna talk about process theories rather than structural theories. There have been structural models such as id Ego Superego / And then theres stages of development presented by Freud Learning theories, To the degree ppl are different it is because of learning and environmental exposure, and experiences we have had as we developed, so if ppl act diff, its cuz they have been exposed to different sets of consequences. The Learning Perspective Individual differences as the result of learning and environmental experiences Behaviour therefore changes in response to external and situational contingencies Thinking is for doing (Susan Fiske) Thinking is associated with behavior. If we take a Radical behaviorist aka radical environmentalist perspective : other than physiological things derived from genetic code, we have individual difference exclusively based on differences in life experience. (environment shapes us) Rmeber :Plaster model saying ppl are fixed, plastic model says we are malleable. Radical behaviorist would be a radically plastic model. Watsons Theory can be called a radical behaviorist theory. Edwin Twitmeyer (1873-1943) American psychologist Discovered same principle as pavlov using entirely different experimental paradigm, and studying different set of processes. Studied reflex actions in ppl and whether certain emotional states made reflex actions more potent or not. So if emotional states could influence reflex actions. Ex if you made ppl mad would they be more likely to act reflexively rather than deliberately. Studied knee-jerk reflex Twitmeyer dropped hammer on ppl and, not to bias results, ppl couldnt see the hammer, ppl didnt like the feeling because he would tap them out of nowhere, so then people asked couldnt there be a signal when you about to tap us. So he put light above them and it would light when he was gonna drop the hammer, after about 200 times of lightly tapping someone with this hammer, while this light was on. Eventually when the light came on people jerked their legs involuntary. Stimulus was different but the result was the same, whether it was mechanical stimulus actually hitting the knee, and setting it off or a non-mechanical stimulus (where the light goes on and causes peoples knee to jerk). Not something you expect light to do, (like make ur eyes dilate) it was unrelated behavior (knee-jerk). He presented this info, (after lunch break so ppl were tired) audience was hostile towards him. He is a foot note, but Pavlov is the one we remember. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) He was studying salivary reflex in dogs, won nobel prize for physiology of digestion, and it was an epiphenomenon that he stumbled upon this process of learning (it was an accident). Why would food cause saliva to come ? it lubricates the mouth, able to swallow our food, also helps start digestive process Reflex reaction of slaiva to food makes sense; it is an adaptive response to food Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) - natural object/event (food); elicits reflex behavior (this reflexive behavior is what we call the unconditioned response) (not all unconditioned stimuli will be natural as we shall see later)* Unconditioned Response (UCR) - reflexive behavior (salivation) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - neutral stimulus that is paired with UCS (metronome) At 1 this conditioned stimulus causes no response, or no relevant response. May produce some response but it is nto the response of interest to us. Conditioned Response (CR) - learned response to paired stimulus (salivation) So we pair unconditioned stimulus with the conditioned stimulus, and what may happen is that that eventually, the unconditioned stimulus on its own will lead to the same response that the unconditioned stimulus induces. BUT now its called the conditioned response, cuz it is elicited by the conditioned stimulus alone. You will notice that the the UCR and CR are the same, even though the UCS and CS are different.the UCR and CR are the same, but the distinction is that one is in response to food, (which functionally makes sense, the other is in response to a ticking metronome, which functionally doesnt make sense, unless the dog is gonna eat the metronome, but ofcourse the dog ids not gonna eat the metronome, but when it hears the metronome, it knows that food is oncoming. Conditioned means learned in this case. Before Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus Neutral Response During Conditioning (aka associative learning) Neutral Stimulus + Unconditioned Stimulus (repeatedly) Unconditioned Response UCS and CS are paired together repeatedly and response elicited is still called Unconditioned Resp
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