Class Notes (809,047)
Canada (493,506)
Psychology (4,094)
PSY230H5 (148)
heffernan (8)

Personality - Lec 11

13 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga

PSYB30: Personality Psychology Lecture #11 (03/23/2009) Personality and Psychopathology What is abnormal psychology? Scientific study of unusual and/or maladaptive thoughts and behavior How do we define abnormal? Statistical infrequency and/or deviatio[intelligence is normally distributed, but is higher end of spectrum abnormal?] Discouraged by cultural norms Impairs important daily functions (e.g., work, relationships, housework, etc.) Distressing to self and/or other people All of these have problems with them, so we need a definition that includes multiple factors. What is an abnormal personality? Difficulty getting along with other people Irritable, hostile, fearful, or manipulative Pattern of behaviors deviates markedly from society's expectations (the concept of being normal shifts from society to society) Pattern is inflexible, appears across a broad range of situations, and has a long duration - Often begins in childhood/adolescence For some contexts, some of these ways of behaving will be quite functional. Difference or Extremity? Categorical models (Type Based): qualitative breaks (tends to be favored in psychology) aka [taxonomic model] distinct categories or taxa Either have the disorder or do not have it (i.e., you are abnormal or normal) Still dominant in psychiatry / clinical psychology If you fit a certain number of symptoms, you are put into a certain category. What we call disorders are extremes of common ways of behaving. An extreme overabundance or extreme deficit. So in that sense we may be more inclined to adopt a dimensional model which treats all of these ways of behaving along some trait like dimension. And there are gradations of lets say narcissism or anti-social behavior. Dimensional models (Trait Based): quantitative degrees (this is gaining some gaining some ground in both medicine and clinical psychology, looking at things in terms of degrees rather than gaps or types.) [ one of the reasons is, because it has been shown to work] You see a bell curve in this case, rather than just two separate groups. Statistical model fits better with dimensional approach as opposed to categorical approach as well. Disorders are exaggerations/deficits of aspects seen in many normal individuals Specific patterns of aspects comprise disorders Advocated by many modern theorists One big problem with the categorical approach is that a lot of personality disorders are co-morbid with each other. If you have one you tend to have another one, given that it becomes very hard to put people into one category into one or the other, if they share symptoms which overlap between categories where do put them? And if we put them in both it betrays the idea that categorical models are useful in the first place. Personality Disorder Clusters Personality disorders in manuals are clustered into 3 groups. Derives from categorical approach Note: Debate exists about use of categories; comorbidity of disorders is very common (>75%) Cluster A: odd/eccentric Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal Cluster B: dramatic/erratic Anti-social, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic Cluster C: anxious/inhibited Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive odd/eccentric, dramatic/erratic, anxious/inhibited these terms describe whats in these categories, but it doesnt mean that these categorizations have similar cause or can be treated by similar therapeutic methods. Can have very divergent causes leading to very phenotypically very similar types of behavior. One reason there is a debate about category treatment of these disorders is the high co-morbidy which means two or more diseases/disorders go together. For example ppl with alcohol use often have problems with cigarette-use. Obesity would be co-morbid with heart disease. The fact that a person qualifies for one personality disorder, 3/4ths of them would also qualify as having symptoms of another personality disorder. This should make us question whether these are really separate categories or not. Sizable proportion of US citizens have a disorder
More Less

Related notes for PSY230H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.