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Lecture 4

PSY240 Lecture 4 March.docx

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Hywel Morgan

PSY240 Lecture - 4 March, 2013 Therapy/ Treatments - research showing that psychological and psychiatric really are the same thing philosophical question: are mind and brain same thing mind: personality, brain: organ in the body that runs on neurotransmitters - a gestalt: something that is greater than the sum of its parts common example: a motion picture - psychological and biological problems and treatments affect each other (interaction)  PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES  o PSYCHOANALYTICAL PSYCHOTHERAPIES o  depression very effectively treated without antidepressants before their development 30-35 years ago   research shows psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy both equally as effective as each other  Freud --> Freudian Therapy  general approach: psychopathology/abnormal behaviour caused by intra-psychic (subconscious) conflict  specific technique: Free association (analyst looking for Freudian slips)  simplest way to test effectiveness of treatment in psychotherapy is to do an experiment with a control (placebo) group   consumer report survey: no difference between people who receive psychotherapy and placebo  psychoanalysis largely been abandoned because doesn't seem as effective as placebo  most psychopathology gets better on its own (called: spontaneous remission) over time   sometimes its difficult to determine whether treatments works of spontaneous remission (reason why a placebo/control group is needed)  psychoanalysis usually conducted on people who are high- functioning, usually not a process of clinical psychology (deals with pathology)   usually a process of counseling psychology (problems of everyday living)  o COGNITIVE THERAPIES o  as a reaction to shortcomings of psychoanalysis both behavioural and cognitive therapies were introduced  idea is that you have learned faulty thoughts (middle ground between behaviour therapy and psychoanalysis)   e.g. "im going to fail", "im hopeless", etc.  focus on reteaching how to think  Rational-emotive therapy   focus on a persons inappropriate self demands, unrealistic beliefs  challenge/dispute unrealistic/irrational beliefs  attempts to restructure person's thoughts and beliefs  o BEHAVIOR THERAPIES o  interested in what is observable  Baldwin, Watson  systematic study of behaviourism began at University of Toronto  principles of conditioning   reinforcement: increases behaviour  punishment: decreases behaviour  Freudian criticism of this: changed behaviour but not thought processes so the symptoms will come back   for most behavioural therapies this is not the case  o  SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION   Really effective especially for disorders of anxiety (specifically phobias: irrational fears)  Adovan, very common anxiolytic drug  replace emotional response of anxiety with a different emotional response  practice an emotional state (meditation/relaxation)  o  FLOODING OR IMPLOSIVE THERAPY   also very effective  get rid of phobia right away  unethical  e.g. put in room full of spiders   eventually person tired from anxiety and realizes they are still alive...  really effective treatment for OCD  o  MODELING   patient shown a behaviour that he/she has to repeat  e.g. therapist shows patient how to interact with a dog  o  EXTINCTION   takes a long time  does not require any cognitive processes  removing what is reinforcing a particular behaviour  o  POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT   reinforcing behaviours that are desirable   e.g. token economy (given star for good behaviour, cash in stars for privileges)  o GROUP THERAPIES o  other people involved in session that have similar problems to you   advantages: see that you are not alone, see people who are successful following treatment (hope), get support, cheaper  disadvantage: therapist not involved as much because can't relate to problems of patients in the group  SOMATIC/BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES  o SHOCK THERAPY o  not commonly used  monism: philosophical term that means mind and brain are one and the same  ECT (electro-convulsive therapy)  used in the past in the treatment of schi
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