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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Classification and Diagnosis

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Hywel Morgan

PsychologicalAssessment - Is an ongoing process o The environment may change o Treatment may not work – why? (Wrong diagnosis?) Classification and Diagnosis - DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual) is a diagnostic tools; a classification system - We want to find out what statistically is the norm, and determine what the deviations are from the normal Research Methods - In order to determine the categories of disorders, they had to collect data Diagnosis - Benefit o Selection of treatment o Peace of mind o Helps us in the research of abnormal behaviour (you become another statistical point for research purposes) - Harm o It is difficult to use statistics as sometimes the statistics could be wrong  Example: homosexuality isn’t the norm, but it isn’t a psychopathology  Statistics haven’t been used for deriving psychopathology on DSM  DSM has been derived/developed/constructed through consensus o Misdiagnosis  It is easy to misdiagnosis and is often common  DSM is a list of behaviours that have to occur, and these behaviours are determined by a consensus of experts, which can lead to misdiagnosis o Giving label to a patient can be stigmatizing  If you give someone a label (ie. Schizophrenic), you become schizophrenic forever, which is not correct What Makes a Good Classification System? th - The classification system we use in NorthAmerica is DSM, and it is on this 5 edition - The rest of the world using the ICD (International Classification of Diseases) 10 edition o For the most part, 95% of disorders show up on both classification systems - There are 2 main reasons for DSM 5: o The aim was to make the manual statistically normative (which failed miserably) o Make it 100% compatible with ICD 10 - There are 5 considerations that make a good classification system o The diagnostic categories are clearly defined  The disorders are labelled, and list out items of behaviours that need to occur in order to be diagnosed with this label  Depression: here are the symptoms that need to occur, as well as list out the duration and frequency. • DSM4 – have the symptoms for 6 weeks • DSM5 – take out that duration, so you can get treated right away  Have a broader categories than DSM4, which may lead to over diagnosis o The categories exist; they are features that occur together regularly  People who statistically have these features that occur together regularly, have this type of disord
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