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Lecture 3

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Ayesha Khan

Abnormal Psychology Lecture 3 Causes and Risk Factors - Etiology - Necessary cause : For PTSD to occur there must be a traumatic event -Sufficient cause: Hopelessness is sufficient for depression to occur -Contributory cause: Causal factors - Distal Something happens in the backgroundlife history and sets the stage for the disorder Ie. Neglectful childhood can be the cause of depression - Proximal- A situation that is too much for an individual to handle Ie. Fail a course and that recent occurrence brings the depression A reinforcing contributory cause - Maintains maladaptive behaviour that is already occurring Ie. When child is staying home in pyjamas you say its okay and reinforce it. Feedback and Circularity in Abnormal Behaviour - Our concepts of causal relationships must take into account the folloring -Feedback: Lots of components not just A causes B -Patterns of interactions -Circularity: change in one component effects all the other components as well Diathesis-Stress Models Diathesis - Relatively distal necessary or contributory cause that is not sufficient to cause the disorder -Something you have within you (predisposition). -Can be because of something biological, psychological (cognition-thinking pattern) Stress -The response of an individual to demands perceived as taxing Additive model -High diathesis may require small amounts of stress for a mental disorder to develop - Low diathesis (I dont care either way may require large amounts of stress for a mental disorder to develop -Diathesis + stress Interactive model - Some amount of diathesis must be present before stress will have any effect
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