Mini assignments: Purpose, method, meaning, etc. Explain concisely. You do not
have to do any extra research, include discussion-what do they results mean, include
article review –summarize and how it goes with your results
Midterm multiple choice (25%) and short answer (75%).
Cognitive psychology is the study of how we think, how we learn things, how we
solve problems, how we are creative, speak, read, and remember or forget.
Cognitive psychology shares common interests with other areas of psychology and
Language represents constructs.
Engineering psychology has to do with people-computer interaction.
Epistemology what do we know? AND how do we gain knowledge? (a.k.a.
When we are born and our soul enters our body, it forgets although it possessed the
knowledge previously (a priori truths).
Gain knowledge through reasoning and deduction (you have an idea and you go out
in the world and test this idea).
A posteriori truths (you go out in the world and gain knowledge) – trail and error.
Gain knowledge through observation and induction.
*** Science needs both: rationalism and empiricism.
4 association rules for remembering:
- Law of contiguity
- Law of frequency
- Law of similarity
- Law of contrast
Wilhelm Wundt • Thoughts are not physical. However, they are still real and are worth studying.
Mental processes are an activity in and from the brain.
• Structuralism was the first school of thought in psychology. It investigated the
elements of thought via controlled introspection (thinking about your
- Bad reputation because the translations to English were done incorrectly.
• He was the first to describe the senses. Although, he described 7 senses (3 different
types of touches). Controlled experimentations-replicable, end up with same results
• He developed some of the first ideas about: experimentation, perception, attention,
• He is known as the father of psychology.
• According to functionalism, truth lies usefulness: what is its cash value?
• Functionalism was interested in studying the purpose of thought rather than its
• Concerned with prediction and control through direct observation (although James
himself did not enjoy doing research, more of a rationalist-sat around and thought
about how things work)
Hysteria and Hypnotism: Psychoanalysis
• Psychoanalysis began from the work of Charcot, he studied hysteria in individuals.
Often, these hysteric individuals were helped through hypnosis. Hence, it was used
• Ana O. was a young woman in her 20s, whose father was very ill. She began to
develop hysteric symptoms such as not having the ability to speak German but only
English. After her father died she could not eat or drink. Charcot discovered that
when she was in the hypnotic trances she would recover memories and would see
things and shortly after one of her symptoms would go away. She was treated by
Breuer and his assistant, Freud. Breuer developed a theory about unexpressed
• Influences of psychoanalysis: unconscious minds, importance of biology and
society, and Myers-Briggs personality inventory. ***Idea of unconscious mind is Freud’s (we process information all the time that we do
not know about).
Salivating Dogs: Behaviourism
• Backlash to psychoanalysis.
• Pavlov was a Russian physiologists, he studied dogs and discovered classical
conditioning, which is the groundwork for behaviourism.
• Edward Lee Thorndike set the stage for behaviourism in America:
- Law of effect: when an association is followed by a “satisfying state of affairs”,
the connection is strengthened.
• John Watson did a lot for behaviourism. He is not known for being an intellectual
but rather a hard worker. He thought we could use animals to study human