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University of Toronto Mississauga
Christine Burton

Lecture #1  Mini assignments: Purpose, method, meaning, etc. Explain concisely. You do not have to do any extra research, include discussion-what do they results mean, include article review –summarize and how it goes with your results  Midterm  multiple choice (25%) and short answer (75%).  Cognitive psychology is the study of how we think, how we learn things, how we solve problems, how we are creative, speak, read, and remember or forget.  Cognitive psychology shares common interests with other areas of psychology and vice versa.  Language represents constructs.  Engineering psychology has to do with people-computer interaction.  Epistemology  what do we know? AND how do we gain knowledge? (a.k.a. cognitive psychology). Rationalism  When we are born and our soul enters our body, it forgets although it possessed the knowledge previously (a priori truths).  Gain knowledge through reasoning and deduction (you have an idea and you go out in the world and test this idea). Empiricism  A posteriori truths (you go out in the world and gain knowledge) – trail and error.  Gain knowledge through observation and induction. *** Science needs both: rationalism and empiricism.  4 association rules for remembering: - Law of contiguity - Law of frequency - Law of similarity - Law of contrast Wilhelm Wundt • Thoughts are not physical. However, they are still real and are worth studying. Mental processes are an activity in and from the brain. • Structuralism was the first school of thought in psychology. It investigated the elements of thought via controlled introspection (thinking about your consciousness). - Bad reputation because the translations to English were done incorrectly. • He was the first to describe the senses. Although, he described 7 senses (3 different types of touches). Controlled experimentations-replicable, end up with same results • He developed some of the first ideas about: experimentation, perception, attention, memory, language). William James • He is known as the father of psychology. • According to functionalism, truth lies usefulness: what is its cash value? • Functionalism was interested in studying the purpose of thought rather than its elements. • Concerned with prediction and control through direct observation (although James himself did not enjoy doing research, more of a rationalist-sat around and thought about how things work) Hysteria and Hypnotism: Psychoanalysis • Psychoanalysis began from the work of Charcot, he studied hysteria in individuals. Often, these hysteric individuals were helped through hypnosis. Hence, it was used as treatment. • Ana O. was a young woman in her 20s, whose father was very ill. She began to develop hysteric symptoms such as not having the ability to speak German but only English. After her father died she could not eat or drink. Charcot discovered that when she was in the hypnotic trances she would recover memories and would see things and shortly after one of her symptoms would go away. She was treated by Breuer and his assistant, Freud. Breuer developed a theory about unexpressed emotions. • Influences of psychoanalysis: unconscious minds, importance of biology and society, and Myers-Briggs personality inventory. ***Idea of unconscious mind is Freud’s (we process information all the time that we do not know about). Salivating Dogs: Behaviourism • Backlash to psychoanalysis. • Pavlov was a Russian physiologists, he studied dogs and discovered classical conditioning, which is the groundwork for behaviourism. • Edward Lee Thorndike set the stage for behaviourism in America: - Law of effect: when an association is followed by a “satisfying state of affairs”, the connection is strengthened. • John Watson did a lot for behaviourism. He is not known for being an intellectual but rather a hard worker. He thought we could use animals to study human beh
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