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PSY270: Lecture 1- intro cognitive psych.docx

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Christine Burton

January 7 2014 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Week 1 TODAY’S GOAL  Review course objectives and assessments  Understand the influences that led to the emergence of cognitive psychology  Introduce the recurring themes in cognitive psychology and this course WHAT IS COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY  Things that go on in the mind, that aren’t social or emotional.  Concerned with how people think…and learn, remember (and forget), speak, read, write, pay attention, solve problems, and make decisions…  Cognitive psychology shares common interests with other areas of psychology and vice versa  Social Cognition: how we think of our self and others.  Cognitive ergonomics: User interface, how does our mind work, how we can make products that are user friendly. WILHELM WUNDT & STRUCTUTALISM: content of the mind (1832-1920)  The “first” psychologist who was happy calling himself a psychologist.  Trained in medicine. Physiology professor. Physiological psychology: Sensation & perception.  Structuralist are interested in the structure of the mind> what is it that we see/hear/touch.  Structuralism was the first school of thought in psychology  Investigated the elements of thought via analytic introspection: observing your own sensation.  Developed some of the first ideas about:  Experimentation: replicable/ open to manipulation/ experiment-able .  Perception: 5 different senses.  Attention: sustainable attention.  Memory: The Magical Number 7 Plus or Minus 2  Language: tree diagrams. WILLIAM JAMES & FUNCTIONALISM: what does the mind do > thoughts result in behavior.  Father ofAmerican psychology  Studied Medicine. Travelled the world for a few years. Went to Europe, met Wundt. Decided to also study the mind.  Functionalist were interested in studying the purpose of thought rather than its elements.  Concerned with prediction and control through direct observation  Wrote “The Principles of Psychology”: not much research. HYSTERIA& HYNOTISM: PSYCHOANALYSIS  Developed from a mental health perspective:  Henz Mezmer: mesmerism > all human behavior was influenced by earth’s magnetism. Waving Magnets at people the right way he can control people by putting them in a trance. Now known as hypnotism. Some improvement in patients when the patients were hypnotize. Used to treat Hysteria.  Charcot (1825-1893) was known to use hypnosis to study hysteria  While studying the case of a woman with hysteria, Freud and his mentor, Dr. Joseph Breuer developed a theory about unexpressed emotions. Anna O: patient with hysteria/ paralysis/ unable to eat or drink/ forgot how to speak German or English. Being Hypnotize she could report when these symptoms occurred. Unable to drink water: reported in her hypnotism she saw a dog drink from a glass, another women later drank from the same glass. Unpleasant events would be 1 January 7 2014 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Week 1 repressed into the unconscious mind and it would manifest.Anna told everyone she loved her dr. and was pregnant with her child. Dr dropped psychoanalysis and left it to Freud.  Influences of psychoanalysis  Unconscious mind: repressed memories.  Importance of biology and society- We are highly influenced by environment and society. SALIVATING DOGS: HERE COMES BEHAVIOURISM  Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) described what would become the groundwork for behaviourism: classical (Pavlovian) conditioning  US=UR US+NS=UR NS becomes CS= CR  Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) set the stage for behaviourism inAmerica  Cats puzzle box. Cats would learn how to escape faster over time.  Law of effect: When an association is followed by a “satisfying state of affairs,” the connection is strengthened. BEHAVIOURISM  John Watson (1878-1958) was concerned with behaviour as a series of stimuli and responses.  Studied Philosophy. Switched to psychology. Studied animal research through classical conditions. Easier than humans and could use perfectly as a human model.  Brain processes are unimportant (“mystery box”)  Stimulus goes in, response comes out.  "LittleAlbert experiment", Watson's most famous experiment, in whichAlbert (9 month) was subjected to a loud noise every time a rat came close to the child. After a few pairings of the noise with the rat,Albert reacted to the rat by crawling away as rapidly as possible.  His ideas are associated with classical conditioning: how pairing one stimulus (loud noise presented to albert) with another, previously neutral stimulus (the rat) causes changes in the response to the neutral stimulus.  Classical conditioning can generalise: scared of anything white and fluf
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