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Lecture 5

Lecture 5- longterm memory.docx

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Christine Burton

Feb 4 2013 Long Term Memory Week 5  Evidence for the distinction between explicit and implicit memory systems comes from people suffering from amnesia Explicit: We remember them, talk about them. Implicit: unconscious, we think of but we didn’t know we have it. Patients with amnesia can lose one and still have the other. AMNESIA - Retrograde amnesia: o Memory loss for events prior to trauma (injury). o It is graded> Coming back slowly. o Most memory loss just right before injury. o Oldest memory is retained. o Improves with time, but depends on severity of injury. - Anterograde amnesia: o Memory loss for events after trauma. o Unable to form new memories. o Does not improve overtime. H.M.  Seizures started at 10 years old. Feb 4 2013 Long Term Memory Week 5  By 27, they were so severe could no longer work – they became intractable seizure disorder: can’t be treated.  Bilateral removal of medial temporal lobe in 1953 What causes a seizure? When all neurons in the brain acting same time in sync. It takes over the activity of brain. It always starts in one part of brain which recruits the rest of the brain.  Successfully treated seizures  Intelligence, language, personality, and memory for past events relatively intact  Complete loss of ability to form new memories>> anterograde amnesia.  His short term memory was fine, it was the LTM that was a prob.  i.e. loss of memory consolidation HOW COULD H.M. REMEMBER?  H.M. had lost all ability to form new explicit memories but demonstrated normal implicit learning. He could do new things even if he didn’t have explicit memory  Priming:  Word-completion tasks ATTENTION  Incomplete- key Pictures  Procedural tasks:  Memory for action  Mirror tracing  Tower of Hanoi Feb 4 2013 Long Term Memory Week 5 No associative: Refers to habituation and sensitization. Episodic: you vividly remember. Semantic memory: Things you know, the facts. TYPES OF MEMORY TASK  Different types of tasks are used to measure different types of memory Recall: asked to remember. Short answer DECLARITIVE MEMORY Recognition: list of things you saw.  Atkinson-Shiffrin (1968) multi-store Multiple choice. (modal) model Serial recall: remember in the order presented. Free recall: remember in any order. Feb 4 2013 Long Term Memory Week 5 WHY DO WE FORGET Serial Position Curve: memory is good for the beginning and end of list. Primacy effect: Have been transferred to LTM. Recency Effect: Items are in STM or working memory.  Evidence that primacy and recency effects involve separate memory systems comes from observation that we can eliminate one with the other.  Increasing the time between presentation and test would eliminate the recency effect.  Aserial recall task would eliminate the recency effect.  Increasing Presentation speed would reduce the primacy effect because you don’t have time to rehearse.  Poor memory for items in the middle can be explained by decay theory and interference theory  Retroactive interference (RI): inhibitory effects of new information on old information. Items are the beginning are influenced.  Proactive interference (PI): inhibitory effects of old information on new information. Items at the end of the list are influenced. HOW DO WE EVER LEARN ANYTHING NEW? RELEASES FROM Proactive Interference.  Wicken’s (1976)  Presented three words of fruits. Made them counndbackwards by 3 to prevent rehearsal. 2 time again. 3 time again. Across trials performance decreased. Proactive th interference. 4 trial: he divided participants into 4 groups: fruits, meat, vegie, profession. Release from proactive interference occurred. WHY? The three categories have different meanin
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