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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Cognitive Neuroscience & Perception.docx

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Christine Burton

Jan 14th 2014 Ch2/3: Cognitive Neuroscience and Perception Week 2 TODAY’S GOAL  Describe structure and function of a neuron  Review major anatomical divisions of the brain  Introduce theories of object recognition  Compare object vs. facial recognition KEY THEMES OF ANATOMY 1. Structure vs. Function 2. Localization vs. Distributed Processing THE NEURON Soma – cell body, live sustaining function Dendrites- receives info. Axon: info travels down through action potential Myelin: insulates the action potential. - The range and size of axon varies. THE SYNAPSE  Electrical signals reaches terminal button, release neurotransmitters across the synapse. They neurotransmitters bind to the post synapse.  This causes an excited or inhibitory action.  Information is conveyed chemically at the synapse  The majority of neurotransmitters can be classified into 3 categories:  Amino acids (e.g. GABA- inhibitory neurotransmitter- ON single; glutamate- Primary excitatory neurotransmitter- ON single  Monoamine (e.g. DA, NE, 5- HT)- get the brain ready to response.  Neuropeptides (enkephalins- stopping feeling of pain; substance P- signals pain) NEURONAL COMMUNICATION  Stimulus intensity is represented by the Spontaneous firing firing rate of neurons Excitatory activity inhibitory Jan 14th 2014 Ch2/3: Cognitive Neuroscience and Perception Week 2  All cells have some action if they receive signals or not. There are action potentials happening even when at rest.  A very strong signal is indicated by a lot of action potential. BRAIN IMAGING  Techniques used to investigate structure:  Post-mortem investigation: oldest and only way at one point in time. Wait for someone to die.  CT: an X-ray of different angles that gives us an image of the brain.  MRI: Much clearer (high spatial resolution) picture than a CT.  Techniques used to investigate function:  Single-cell recording/stimulation/lesions/TMS- exclusively on humans, allows temp lesion. Handheld device of magnetic devise and it lesions a certain part of the brain: record activity from an individual brain cell. Insert electrode and record brain wave. ONLY DONE IN ANIMALS.  EEG- measures the electrical potential of the brain as a whole. / ERP- measure EEG with an event related change. Looking for when the change occur. Can tell WHEN the brain is processing, but not WHERE (Spatial resolution) /MEG- measures magnetic fields. Excellent temporal and spatial resolution  PET: measures blood flow/ metabolic function. Insert radioactive die to enter blood system. Active part of the brain requires more blood and will show up more on the scan. Relatively poor spatial and temporal resolution.  FMRI: causes hydrogen to wiggle and you measure the energy produced. Takes advantages of the fact that oxygenated and deoxygenated have different residence. Much better spatial than pet but still not good temporal resolution.  When brain activity is measured, it need to be compared to baseline activity.  The subtraction technique used to interpret the results of brain imaging experiments. (a) Colored area indicates activation when a person is holding a small object. (b) Colored areas indicate activation when the person begins manipulating the object. (c) Subtracting the activation in (a) from the activation in (b) indicates the activation due to manipulation of the object. BRAIN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION  There are a number of ways we can discuss brain structure:  Anatomical references  Developmental areas Jan 14th 2014 Ch2/3: Cognitive Neuroscience and Perception Week 2  Lobes/gyri/sulci  Brodmann areas  Functional divisions ANATOMICAL REFERENCES  We describe different parts of the brain based on directions from the spinal cord.  An imaginary line running down the middle of the spinal cord is called the midline  Imagine a rat: ANATOMICAL REFERENCES  The same system applies in humans THE BRAIN  The brain is divided into sections based on how it develops  Neurotube  ROM: HIND  MESDEN: MIDBRAIN  PEOSEN: FOREBRAIN.  TELE  DIENCEPHALON HINDBRAIN: ROMBON  Cerebellum: fine motor control- finger control or reaching/ posture imbalance- slight adjustment  Pons: relay station. Conveys between cerebellum and cerebral.  Medulla: Important for basic life sustaining system- muscle tone/ cardio vascular Jan 14th 2014 Ch2/3: Cognitive Neuroscience and Perception Week 2 MIDBRAIN: green  Tectum (“roof”): groups of cells important for visual and auditory reflexes  Tegmentum (“floor”): contains groups of cells that releases dopamine and motor control. FOREBRAIN: Diencephalon (red)  Hypothalamus: endocrine functions , involved in autonomic system: thirst, hunger, sweating, breathing  Thalamus: Sensory station- modueling sensory info. Important for arousal: alert and sleep/ attention. FOREBRAIN: Telencephalon • Basal ganglia: important for motor control.  Limbic system: emotions. Hippocampus is also part of limbic system, it is important for memory.  Cerebral cortex: grey matter outside of brain. Responsible for higher level of cognition. CEREBRAL CORTEX  The cerebral cortex is folded over itself to create gyri (bumps) and sulci (grooves)  The cortex is divided into 4 lobes  Occipital: vision  Parietal: Sense of touch and attention.  Temporal: Auditory cortex, language comprehension, object recognition.  Frontal: motor cortex, broca’s area for speech production, highest level of thinking: planning, thinking, decision making.   Cortex can be further divided according to physical arrangement of gyri and sulci Jan 14th 2014 Ch2/3: Cognitive Neuroscience a
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