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PSY270 - Jan 28, 2014pdf.pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

PSY270 - Jan 28 Experiment 1: ▯ - 110 participants: 81 female, 22 males, 7 unknown ▯ - 2 min audio recording containing 8 target names and 8 target cities ▯ - independent samples t-test: effects of group on name recall ▯ - t(df) = x (whatever the t value is), p < 0.05 or p=y (whatever p is equal to if the p value is not less than 0.05) ▯ - paired-samples t-test: effect of recall type on memory ▯ ▯ ▯ Memory ▯ ▯ What do we want to know about memory? ▯ - what the memory can hold, structure of memory; what is the code ▯ - what are the limiting factors of memory: the capacity and duration ▯ - processes that allow information to enter/encoded, maintain and retrieve memory ▯ ▯ Classic model of memory: Atkinson-Shiffrin multi-store model ▯ - memory stores: sensory, short-term, long-term ▯ - control processes: attention, rehearsal, retrieval/transfer▯ - structural, serial, modular ▯ ▯ Sensory memory▯ - limited capacity store that holds basic sensory information for a very limited amount of time ▯ - we have a different sensory memory for each of our senses ▯ - iconic: vision memory ▯ - echoic: auditory memory for a short period of time▯ - attention is the process that moves information from sensory to short term memory ▯ ▯ Sperlings sensory store investigation ▯ - how much can we encode during a single, brief instance ▯ - when asked to remember as many letters as they can (whole report), people can only remember 3-4 items ▯ - used two different types of presentation ▯ - partial report technique: only had to report only a certain part of the whole ▯ - only one row people could remember approx. 3 items in that row (82%) ▯ - reasoning in order to remember 82% at random, you would need to remember all the letters in their respective order ▯ - duration (limiting factor) is so short that people forget the items before they can report them all ▯ - duration of iconic memory is ~150 ms▯ - echoic memory tends to have a longer duration (~3-4 secs)▯ - maybe they remembered all the letters but they couldn't report them fast enough ▯ * memory can never go to zero - because some of the information can go into short term memory ▯ * the capacity for attention is about 4 items ▯ * capacity for iconic memory is 9-12 items ▯ * capacity for auditory signal cannot be mentioned unless you talk about duration (capacity depends on duration) ▯ ▯ PSY270 - Jan 28 Short term memory▯ - limited capacity store that holds information for relatively brief period of time (longer than sensory) ▯ - without rehearsal the duration of STM is only a few seconds (~20-30 s) ▯ - rehearsal is the process that moves information to long term memory and what keeps it in STM▯ - George miller proposed the “magical number 7+/-2” is the capacity of STM (each slot can hold
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