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PSY270 - Feb 4, 2014.pdf

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Elizabeth Johnson

PSY270 - Feb 4 Long term memory ▯ ▯ Two different types of long term memory: declarative (explicit) and non-declarative (implicit - unconscious memories)▯ ▯ - because of patients with amnesia ▯ ▯ Amnesia ▯ - retrograde amnesia: memory loss for events prior to trauma ▯ - due to some sort of injury, trauma ▯ - don’t remember what happened in the past ▯ - the extent of the memory loss depends on the severity of the trauma▯ - amnesia is graded: loose the memory right before the injury ▯ - amnesia does tend to improve over time (comes back from oldest to newest memory; there there are some points that don’t come back all together)▯ - anterograde amnesia: memory loss for events after trauma ▯ - inability to form new memories ▯ - this does not improve over time ▯ ▯ i.e. H.M: ▯ ▯ - seizures started at 10 years old ▯ ▯ - got worse and worse over time▯ ▯ - by 27, they were so sever that he could no longer work - they became intractable ▯ ▯ - bilateral removal of medial temporal lobe in 1953 ▯ ▯ - don’t know what causes seizures what we do know that seizures start at one part brain ▯ ▯ - successfully treated seizures ▯ ▯ - intelligence, language, personality, and memory for past events relatively intact ▯ ▯ - complete loss of ability to form new memories (i.e. loss of memory consolidation) ▯ ▯ - long term memory was a problem▯ ▯ - H.M lost ability to form new explicit memory, normal implicit learning▯ * medial temporal lobe is both necessary and sufficient for memory ▯ ▯ - priming: word-completion tasks; incomplete tasks (H.M performed normally in this tasks)▯ - procedural tasks: memory for action; mirror tracing; tower of hanoi (H.M normal) ▯ ▯ Declarative ▯ - sensory ▯ - short term ▯ - long term > episodic (remember), semantic (know; facts)▯ ▯ Non-declarative ▯ - procedural ▯ - priming ▯ - conditioning ▯ - non associative ▯ ▯ Types of memory tasks ▯ - explicit: recall (short answer questions); recognition (m/c questions) ▯ - there are 3 types of recall tasks: serial recall (remember the items in the order they were presented); free recall (recall items in any order); cued recall (given a hint, use that hint to remember the item) ▯ PSY270 - Feb 4 - implicit: procedural and priming ▯ - incidental: how much do you pick up without trying to actively remember it (surprise quiz; unexpected memory task) ▯ ▯ Why do we forget? ▯ - primacy effect = good memory for things at the beginning (into long term memory)▯ - recency effect = good memory for things at the end of the list (still in sensory, short term memory) ▯ - evidence that primacy and recency effects involve separate memory systems comes from observation that we can eliminate one of the other ▯ - if the amount of time that delays before recall prolongs, the recency effect is effected ▯ - if you increase the time the items are presented, the primacy effect is effected ▯ - poor memory for items in the middle can be explained by decay theory (over time information fades) and interference theory ▯ - retroactive interference (RI): inhibitory effects of new information on old information ▯ - items at the beginning of the list are influenced ▯ - proactive interference (PI): inhib
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