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Lecture

PSY270 - Jan 14th, 2014.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY270H5
Professor
Elizabeth Johnson
Semester
Winter

Description
PSY270 - Jan 14 Cognitive neuroscience▯ ▯ Structure VS Function ▯ - mainly focus on structure ▯ ▯ - Localization VS Distributive processing ▯ is a function localized or distributive across the brain (in one place or all over) ▯ ▯ • Neuron ▯ Soma > Dendrites receives information from other cells (signal from receptor sites) > Axon > Myelin Sheath > Terminal button ▯ - these neurons can be very short but also very long (some you CAN see with a naked eye some you cannot; varies based on function and location) ▯ ▯ • Synapse ▯ - chemical signal ▯ - causes some effect in the next neuron ▯ - there are 3 neurotransmitters: amino acids (GABA: primary inhibitory neurotransmitter; glutamate: primary excitatory neurotransmitter); Monoamine; Neuropeptides (have specific functions depending on what peptide it is) ▯ - Whether a cell receives a signal or not it has some activity however its a matter of whether or not it reaches an action potential or not ▯ - A very strong signal has a strong action potential ▯ - A very weak signal has a strong action potential ▯ - Spontaneous AP: some # of activity in a given amount of time ▯ - Excitatory AP: more amount of activity in a given amount of time ▯ - Inhibitory AP: little amount of activity in a given amount of time ▯ ▯ • Brain Imaging Techniques▯ Structural brain imaging: useful but not really useful for cognitive psychologists ▯ - postmortem investigation (wait for someone to die before investigating the actual brain) ▯ - Computerized Tomography (CT; basically an x-ray of the brain) ▯ - MRI (much clearer picture [high spacial resolution] of the brain) ▯ Functional brain imaging: more what cognitive psychologists need▯ - Single-cell recording (recording what happens in one cell of the brain) / stimulation (observing upon stimulation) / lesions (remove a part of the brain and see what happens; mostly done on animals) / TMS (allows a temporary lesion - a virtual lesion) ▯ - EEG (electroencephalography - doesn't tell us anything other than whether you are awake or asleep) / ERP (event related potential - looking for a change in the brain because of the stimulus and when it is processed; we have very good temporal (time); poor spatial resolution) / MEG (measures magnetic fields - good temporal as well as good spatial resolution; not used all the time because it is not so practical; very expensive) ▯ - PET (typically measures blood flow to the brain; can be used to measure any metabolize functions; has relatively poor temporal and spatial resolution) ▯ - fMRI (uses the same technology as MRI but takes advantage of the fact that oxygenated and deoxygenated blood has different magnetic resonance; has the best spatial resolution) ▯ > These methods require comparisons with a baseline measure (subtraction technique)▯ ▯ Brain is divided into sections based on how it is developed▯ PSY270 - Jan 14 - Prosencephalon > telencephalon > diencephalon ▯ - Mesencephalon ▯ - Rhombencephalon ▯ ▯ Some people say the mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon make up the brain stem, some include the diencephalon too ▯ ▯ • Hindbrain ▯ - cerebellum: important for fine controlled motor movement▯ - pons: is a relay station, conveys information between higher and lower parts of the brain ▯ - medula: important for basic life sustaining functions (keeping us alive) ▯ ▯ • Midbrain ▯ - tectum (“roof”): contains groups of neurons that form 2 nuclei important for visual and auditory reflexes▯ - tegmentum (“floor”): important for dopamine release, important for motor control ▯ ▯ • Forebrain: Diencephalon ▯ - hypothalamus: important for endocrine functions; important for functions involved in the - autonomic nervous system ▯ awake/attention) ▯ur senses (except sm
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