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PSY270 - Jan 21st, 2014.pdf

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Elizabeth Johnson

PSY270 - Jan 21 Attention/consciousness▯ ▯ ▯onscious VS unconscious processing ▯ Bottom-up VS Top-down processing ▯ ▯ Serial VS parallel processing ▯ ▯ Attention for location VS object ▯ ▯ ▯ -ttention is the concentration of mental effort on sensory or mental events ▯ - covert attention (paying attention to something but not looking at it)▯ - the difference between what an observer can tell what the person is looking at ▯ - endogenous attention (we decide what we are going to pay attention to, voluntarily) ▯ ▯ - endogenous attention can be overt; can be covert▯ - exogenous attention (when something external to us grabs our attention) ▯ ▯ - exogenous attention can be overt; typically is not covert ▯ ▯ Attention is intimately linked to consciousness (sensory level, physical level) ▯ - habituation: you no longer are aware of it as you get use to it and no longer pay attention to it ▯ - sensory adaptation: not dishabituation; also when you stop become aware but at a different location; our sensory neurons become not aware of it anymore; doesn't matter what you do, you cannot regain that sense again ▯ ▯ Inattentional blindness: (cognitive level)▯ - if we dont pay attention to something we wont be consciously aware of it ▯ ▯ Change blindness: ▯ - we are often “blind” to changes that occur within our visual fields ▯ - we can only pay attention to a limited amount of things ▯ ▯ we pay attention to what is more important ▯ Attention is driven by stimulus saliency (potent - strong): ▯ - motion ▯ - colour ▯ - brightness ▯ - contrast ▯ - orientation ▯ ▯ Attention can be driven by other “important” information and previous knowledge (i.e. task at ▯and) ▯ Chabris, et al (2011) demonstrated that one “important” event can make us blind to an unexpected “important” event ▯ ▯ ▯ PSY270 - Jan 21 Run around campus and did they notice the assault ▯ 1. broad daylight - 72%▯ 2. night - 35%▯ 3. tap head with one hand count how many times - 56%▯ 4. tap head with both and count now many times with right hand - 42%▯ ▯ We decide what is important before carrying out the task at hand ▯ ▯ Attention can be used for different functions: ▯ - selective attention: thinking about one thing; often studied by using dichotic listening tasks (listening to two different phrases) and shadowing (repeat one message and not the other) ▯ ▯ Cherry▯ - people are good at paying attention to message in one ear i.e. people are good at selectively attending ▯ - people noticed sensory information in unattended ear ▯ - people did not notice the meaning of the message in the unattended ear (could not tell what the message was; even if the word was repeated over and over again) ▯ - we are selectively attending “meaning”, either case, we get sensory information ▯ ▯ Filter Theories of attention selective attention ▯ - based of results from dichotic listening tasks ▯ - filter theories (aka bottleneck theories) ▯ - broadbent’s early selection model selective attention: messages > sensory memory > filter (attended message) > detector (gains one meaning) > to memory ▯ - problems: people are aware of their own name in an unattended message (cocktail party effect) ▯ - Triesman’s experience - suggests that the unattended ear are processing some sort of meaning; messages > sensory
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