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PSY270 - Mar 11, 2014.pdf

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Elizabeth Johnson

Decision making ▯ - Decision making is a top down process - decision making you have to make a choice, but you need to rely on reasoning to make a choice ▯ What is reasoning? - how do we know what we know? - there are two ways of gaining knowledge - 1. rationalism: we already know what is true (priori truth) - ourselves of what we already have prior knowledge of through “deduction” just need to remind - general principles > specific instances - 2. empiricism: a posteriori truth; gain information/knowledge from experience - this process is through “induction” - specific instances > general principles ▯ Deductive Reasoning: - Conditional reasoning - given specific premises and asked to draw a particular conclusion - given a set of propositions using, an “if.. then” structure and asked to draw a logical conclusion from the preposition - important thing to keep in mind is that we can separate out valid reasoning from truth - something can be logical but not true; this can happen when the preposition is false ▯ Conditional reasoning - antecedent is the statement that comes first and contains the “if” statement - the consequent is the statement that follows and con taint the “then” statement - this allows for 4 possible kinds of reasoning outcomes in conditional reasoning - only two of them lead to a valid strategies: affirm antecedent; deny consequent - if you affirm then the conclusion must also affirm; vice versa, if you deny then the conclusion must also deny ▯ Wason selection task - condition reasoning problem with cards - if vowel on one side of the card, then even number on the other side - people have a tendency to look for information that supports a claim but tend not to look for - information that refutes it - this is known as the “confirmation bias” helps us reach a conclusion)mas help reduce the resources required to solve the task (past knowledge ▯ Belief bias effect - we ignore logical reasoning and rely on knowledge > to reach a wrong conclusion - it’s another case of using past experiences but reach a wrong answer ▯ Categorical Syllogisms - involve drawing a conclusion from 2 statements that we assume are true - categorical membership - “all” “some” “none” statements - sometimes, it is “indeterminate” if we cannot draw a logical conclusion from syllogism - -e can solve syllogisms by using mental models (situation models) and any kind of information that you inferdes whatever relevant information that you draw from LTM - in order to use these mental models, you need to create and think of all possible models - this is the limitation - but this ensures that you come to a logical conclusion - people with higher working memory - you can have more models > reach logical conclusions - better visual imagery > more models - prior knowledge ▯ Inductive reasoning - based on observations of the world; make inferences of what is likely of the world - reaching a logically certain concl
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