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Lecture 3

PSY270 Lecture 3.doc

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Christine Burton

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Monday January 18 2010PSY270 Lecture 3 Today were talking about attention but as we all know the Coglabs are due today Were going to spend some time going over both the labrelate them to the lecture today She doesnt have too many announcements today The only Attentionquick announcement she has is that someone told on herthat theyre not allowed to pack the roomhave people sitting on the stairs since thats a fire hazard If we notice January182010someone come inthey cant find a spot please raise your hand if there is an empty seat beside you so that they can sit there instead of the aisle What were doing todayshes going to trykeep this Todays Goalsdiscussion in structure as possible Attention is one of those things that we can really talk about in a lot of different waysIntroduceattentionanddefinethedifferentwaysitcanbedifferent research areas ask different questions so it can be a investigatedbit tricky to figure out how they all fit together Shes going to Describethe2majorcampsofattentiontheoriestrycreate an overarching structure when were talking about FiltertheoriesattentionCapacitytheories What were going to start off with is introducing different Discusstheconnectionbetweenattentionandconsciousnesstypes of attentionhow we can use attentiontalking about Primingdifferent tasks used to study themInattentionalblindnessChangeblindness Then she wants to go ontalk about overarching themes of what attention actually isthen at the end well spend time Reviewbrainareasandneurotransmittersinvolvedinattentiondiscussing the connection bw attentionconsciousness She has added on a review of brain areasneurotransmitters involved in attention That covers the last 3 pages of the chapter The reason she decided to add that on is bc she was reading over the textbook again todayshe realized that the info is not accuratethere are little errors so she wants to go over it so we have the right info So what is attention We all sort of have an idea of what attention isit really is just concentrated mental effort or Types of Attentionmental energy on either sensory or mental events So we can Attentionistheconcentrationofmentaleffortonpay attention to some external stimulus or we can pay sensoryormentaleventsattention to something going on insideso its just Vigilanceconcentrating our mental effortsSelectiveattentionDividedattention We can talk about 4 different things that attention can do Searchtheyre not really types of attention but things we can do with our attentionHowdoesvigilancework So we can be vigilant of something which is looking out for Posnerwasoneoffirsttodemonstratethenatureofvisualattentionexperimentallysomething keeping our attention focused for a certain event to occur We can selectively attend something So thats really what we think of when we pay attentionwere selectively attending one thing either an external or internal event We can pay attention to more than one thing at onceso we can divide our attention And finally we can use attention to search for somethingso directing attention at different items to pick one out of a group So those are different things that we can do with attention Well spend a bit of time going over each of thosethe tasks that we use There are 2 general themes people research in attention that she wants to point outtheyre not explicit in our textbook but there are 2 things we want to know about for attention The first one is what is it thats in attention how do we decide what to pay attention to Those are the theories about what really is attention The other question is what is inside attention If we pay attention to something what is it about that thing are we paying attention to So first of all what is attentionsecond of all what are the objects that were paying attention to So those are the 2 main themes Generally the first question of what is attention we talk about when we talk about selective attentiondivided attention Now this is not strictly the case but generally speaking thats what we find People who study selectivedivided attention want to know what is it that makes up attention People who study vigilantspecifically visual search tasks really want to know what is it that were putting our attention on what are we being vigilant for What are we searching for She wants to point out sort of where those themes come in as we go along So those 2 main questions which are a different way of dividing attention than those 4 things that we need attention for Alright so were going to start off with vigilance The first question is how does vigilance work What is it One of the first people to ask what is vigilance was Posnerhe performed a now classic experiment which is the first Coglab that we couldve done today Were going to start right off going off the Spatial Cueing Coglabit was a task designed by Posner asking what are we being vigilant for About half the class did this one half the class did the other one so what shes going to do is to first go over very briefly what the task was so were all on the same page before going into the details of it In that task the role is first we look at a cross we keep our eyes therethe task was to push a button when we notice a target itemin this case its the red squarelook herethe red square will show up on the left or right There are 3 possible trials we might see First one we may see an arrow before the stimulus then we see the red squarepress the buttonthat is a valid trialthe arrow indicated where the target was going to be In another case we might get no arrowthen a square a target itemthat trial is a neutral trial bc it doesnt really give us any info about where the target is going to be And finally we have an invalid trial where the trial indicates the opposite direction So that was the task essentially What she wants us to do now that students dont generally really like to do but its beneficial is that she wants us to sort of get into casual groups of 4 5 or 6 peoplejust talk to people around you What she wants us to do is talk about what we wrote in the lab reportso go over what was the purpose procedures manipulationsmeasurements If we didnt do that lab then its useful to listen to those who did the labcome to a consensus of what you wrotethen well go over that later Were going to start with the question of what was the purpose of this Coglab why did we do it What did you write Spatial Cueing CogLabin your report Shes taking answers Ill just write down Purposewhat she says What she put was really broadto just Toinvestigatethenaturerangeofvisualattentioninvestigate the nature of visual attention or the range of visual Procedureattentionwhere does visual attention go So what we wrote Detectthelocationofatargetshapeis not wrong just too specific So we just really ask what it does How does attention work Just a basic questionManipulations So what would be the procedure Just generally what do we IVtypeofcuedo As a participant what did you do Press a button The Measurementsprocedure was to detect the location of a target shape by DVreactiontimepressing a button So what about the manipulation What was the independent variable So the type of cue you were givena valid invalid or neutral cue Then what did we measure what was the dependent variable Reaction time This is the type of info well be looking for Obviously we dont need this word for wordjust very brief statements of what we want to do what the participants jobs werewhat were the independentdependent variable So is all of this testable material Yes She just wants to say as an aside right now especially since there were other students that asked her what were responsible forwhat material were going to be responsible for This course is very experimentally basedthe thing with cognitive psychology is we can never really observe what is going on inside our mindswe have to make inferences based on what we measure like reaction time So it is unlikely for us to be able to say that we did this experiment we observed ithere is the factthis is how it works With cognitive psychology we come up with a theory then we perform an experimentask does it fit or not Then well come up with a theory based on the resultsthen someone else might come up with a theorywell say okay so how does this expand it Really what were responsible for are sort of the ideastheorieswhether or not we can do experiments to support that That is the main focus So to answer the guys question we are going to be responsible for these types of things but she never expects us to know any details about the experimentwe dont need to know who did them or the years they did them in What we should know is what kind of theory was this related to what is the questionwhat did they want to show Generally what happens what did we want to measurewhat did we want to manipulate to get that measurement And then did it show what it wanted to So that is what were going to be responsible forshe might ask on a test to explain an experiment that shows were better
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