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Lecture 3

PSY274 Lecture 3 (Sept 24).docx

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Craig Chambers

PSY274 Lecture 3 - Next week: TEST 1 o 2 hours and no lecture afterwards o Be on time o Bring Tcard o Sit in alternating seats - Test format o MCs o Short format fill in the blank/definitions o Short answer o Medium answer (1 page or so) o All question types can reflect material from lectures or text/readings (first 3 lectures including today) - Balance and level of detail o Approx. 60% lecture/40% readings o Recall specific authors/dates not necessary; only studies talked about in a reasonable level of detail are important (citations used to support a point in the readings are not important) o Technical terms are important  Using the right nomenclature for course o Correct descriptions/definitions of phenomena are important o For experiments discussed in detail, should know:  Research question  The participants (ages = important for development)  Methodology  Measure of interest  Pattern of results  Interpretation/significance of results - Written response o Make sure you read the question carefully o Answers need to be coherent and complete o Don’t restate the questions o Writing a lot of text is technically “not wrong” is not an answer unless it correctly addresses what it is asked in the question - Example MC o Pick best answer o Fill in the blank o Short answer - Extra notes o Academic integrity = don’t cheat o Studying habits and skills o Email questions cut off = 6pm on Sept 30 - Primer for test-taking and exam-taking for PSY274 o Tests and exams in science courses  Terminology matters  Being able to provide an example for a phenomenon or definition is most helpful, if not essential o Preparing for tests and exams  Don’t underestimate the time and effort for studying  If you find studying slow and tedious, you’re on the right track! o Instead of simply re-reading  SLOW DOWN the process of reviewing information  RECONCEPTUALIZE content in new ways  ACTIVELY REFLECT on your own understanding SIGN LANGUAGE - Recall: icon, index, symbol o Icon vs symbol is important for purposes of this lecture - Linguistic communication – modalities o Vocal-auditory channel (spoken language) o Manual-visual channel (sign language) - V-A channel is dominant o All know cultures use spoken language o Why might this be?  Evolutionary speculations  Say thing faster?  Doesn’t require line of sight?  Multitasking with hands?  Useful for night time - But how deeply rooted is the dominance of the vocal-auditory modality? o Do all humans possess some predisposition to use the manual-visual modality?  Given the fact that experience with a particular modality may bias sensitivities …….. - Children and sensitivity to manual symbols (Namy and Waxman 1998) o Compared 18-24 month old hearing children o Tested degree to which children assume unfamiliar spoken word vs arbitrary gesstutre to refers to something o Putting into sentence frame with made up object o Two conditions - Results o 18 months old: assumed wither spoken word or gesture could refer to something o 24 months old: assumed only spoken word could refer to something (required additional incentive to map gesture to object) - Open questions o Does the gesture “stand” for something in the child’s mind (more than just referring to things in immediate environment) o Can the effect be obtained with other kinds of perceptual patterns (e.g. whistle sound, “clicky” noises - Children and sensitivity to manual symbols o ‘home sign’ systems:  Isolated deaf children (no exposure to establish sign languages)  Simple idiosyncratic manual communication system emerges in home  Children’s home signing reflects systematic that are often not found in the home sign patterns for the rest of the family (i.e. hearing family members)  Extra sensitivity that accompanies children in using the system  More common in developing world - Other evidence highlighting our capacity to use the manual-visual modality: gestures accompanying speech (next lecture) - Sign languages o Sociohistorical context:  Not thought to be “real” languages th  Recognized as genuine languages in mid 20 century  Evolved on their own terms, not “designed” systems o Myths  Universality  Patomime  Manual version of spoken language o Note sign in “sign language” and Pierce’s use of “sign” - Main design features and sign language o Semanticity (YES)  Obvious, signs stand for something o Arbitrariness (YES)  Mutual unintelligibility  Signs with iconic origins reshaped over time, iconic sense is lost  Signs for men used to be near the temple and signs for women were near the lips/chin o Why?  It actually had to do with hat wear/head gear  Men wore a top hat and women wore bonnets and it was where you take it off  Many signs without iconic basis  There are more iconic signs than iconic words in spoken language but still o Displacement (YES) o Productivity (YES) o Discreteness (YES) o Duality of patterning (YES) - How do we show evidence of linguistic units
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