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Lecture 5

PSY274 Lecture 5 (Oct 8).docx

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Craig Chambers

PSY274 Lecture 5 - Gestures in human communication - Starting points o Notion of “channels” of communication  Vocal auditory (speech) OR manual-visual (sign)? - Structure of topics o Standing features  Appearance, clothes, bodily adornment o Broader aspects of “body language”  Proxemics, haptics o Eyes and faces  Attentional cueing and eye gaze  Emotional expression  Audiovisual integration in speech processing o Hands  emblems  **Co-speech gesture - Standing features of interaction o Appearance, clothes, bodily adornment  Jewelry, makeup, tattoos are examples of adornment o What do/can these “communicate”? o Are they iconic? Indexical? Symbolic? - Aspects of “body” language”: proxemics, haptics o Parameters for the spacing between individuals or for rules governing touch  Degree to how much you need to be close to someone  Violations of comfort zone or personal space  Just as there’s rules for spacing, there’s also boundaries for touch o Usually depend on cultural and social factors, although some individual level variations - Eyes and faces o Eye gaze  Possible because of some characteristics of the human eye  Human eye: sclera surrounding pupil and iris lacks pigmentation; visible portion of eye is comparatively large for body size  Not true of other primates  Contrasted with gorilla  Pigmented sclera; big body yet smaller eyes  Makes it easy to see where people are gazing because more of the eye is visible o Upshot: only human eye gives easy information on where person is looking o “cooperative eye hypothesis”  Human eye evolved in way that optimizes ability to track gaze of others - Tests of gaze-following in humans and nonhuman primates (Tomasello et al; 2007) o Gorilla, bonobo, chimpanzee, human infant o View videos of faces in different conditions  Face and eyes straight ahead (control)  Eyes closed, head tilts upward  Head stable, eyes look upward  Looked up with both eyes and head o Human infants: tend to shift own gaze only following changes in viewed EYE position o Great apes: tend to shift own gaze in response to changes in viewed HEAD position  Coarse cues  Suggests that other primates don’t use the eye gaze cues like humans do - Are we “wired to shift our attention in response to the gaze shifts of others? (“reflexive/automatic”) o Attention cueing task: press L or R button, depending on where “+” appears; reaction time is measured o There’s also a schematic face with schematic eyeballs in the middle of the screen and sometimes the eyeballs shift in certain left or right direction o Eye gaze cue is either valid (predictive of L-R position) or invalid o Results: valid cue condition: RT faster compared to baseline o Invalid cue condition: RT slower compared to baseline o Important point: effect occurs even after many trails, when participant should have learned gaze cue is overall not predictive (50% valid, 50% invalid). Automatic?  For a certain period, researchers were convinced that it was automatic o Beyond the lab: gaze-driven attentional shifts now NOT believed to be “automatic”  Ex. When people are thinking of something, they sometimes look away for a second, but we don’t look at that direction because we know they’re just thinking so it’s not really automatic o …but, still a strong link between gaze and communication behaviour - Eyes and faces o Facial expression  Emotions - Research by Paul Ekman o Surprising degree of cross-cultural similarity in how basic emotions are expressed on the face  E.g., anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise o Contradicted earlier work arguing for culture-specific patterns o The set of basic emotions = recognizable even by individuals in isolated cultures shown faces of unfamiliar looking humans - Eyes and faces o Audiovisual integration in speech perception  Not only do we see their facial expressions and gazes, we can also see their mouth  Visual information of the articulation of our speech accompany with our ears - “McGurk effect” o Reflects automatic synthesis of visual and auditory information o Procedure: create videos with edited audio tracks  Video image taken from recording of speaker repeated nonsense syllable (e.g. ga-ga, ga-ga)  Audio track replaced with same speaker saying different syllable (e.g. ba-ba, ba- ba)  Perceptual experience?? o Visual information changes the way in which we perceive the speech input  Lips: indicate sound is a /g/ (or maybe a /d/)  Ears: indicate sound is a /b/  Perceptual experience: in this case, neither o Effect is really robust and even children are affected by it o Is this “joint processing” of auditory and visual information reflected in the brain?  The images reveal that the silent lip-reading task, like the listening task, activates primary auditory and auditory-association cortices  Area where we see overlap is where speech processes occur in humans  Suggest that there’s something deeply rooted in the McGurk effect - Communication and the hands o Silent gestures  Pantomime  Charades  French styled mime, telling a story  Pointing  Specialized conventions: usually specific to profession/particular task – sports signals, waving in plant to gate, astronauts, scuba divers, lifeguards  “emblems”: more commonly known; not specific procession/task, but meaning = culturally specified – “hi”/”bye” wave, “crazy”, thumbs up, crossed fingers for luck, rude gestures - Video on emblems o Note: what the presenter refers to as “illustrators” are things we will call as co-speech gestures later on - Co-speech gesture o Gestures that accompany speech; tend to reflect patterns that are comparatively similar across cultures o Meaning/function can be understood only in relation to speech o Only recently have these become the topic of focused research using a wide variety of experimental methodologies o Today:  Some broad observations on the link with speech  Classification: different types of co-speech gesture  For whose benefit do we gesture?  Relationship to information conveyed by speech - Links between co-speech gesture and speech o Development  Initial state: infants produce communicative gestures, no speech  Communicative gestures, unrelated speech  Related speech + communicative gestures are produced at same time that temporal synchrony is achieved, just before ‘2-word stage’  Same meaning with gestures and speech at the same time where children are able to combine words together; perhaps a shift 
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