Class Notes (838,171)
Canada (510,726)
Psychology (4,227)
PSY274H5 (129)
Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Music

5 Pages
153 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY274H5
Professor
Craig Chambers
Semester
Fall

Description
Effects of Experience with Music Intro - Effects on music processing - Effects on other domains Many aspects of music perception and cognition are not affected by explicit instruction - But some differences do exist: o Pre-cortical processing of musical sound is different for musicians compared to non-musicians o Cortical processing reflects expertise-based differences for sounds produced by the instrument the musician plays - What influences might music experience have on other domains? One Intriguing Idea: The Mozart Effect - Initial demonstration that PASSIVE EXPOSURE to classical music caused enhanced performance on spatial reasoning task - Popular press misreported effect as being about IQ - Results made big splash in parenting/early child education circles; Georgia state legislature: proposed budget to provide every newborn with classical music CD! - BUT: o Subsequently shown to be temporary (minutes) o Effect not direct result of music but the arousal/mood modulations that music creates - Example: not all classical music creates the effect (needs to be upbeat, positive- sounding)’ and rock music can also create the effect What about FORMAL INSTRUCTION? - Numerous studies have shown correlations between IQ and music training - Interpretive problem: do these correlations arise simply because children with higher IQ have higher musical abilities (and tend to enroll in/continue with lessons?) Addressing the Interpretive Problem: - Schellenberg (2004) o Study of 6-yr-olds o Got either a year of free music lessons OR free drama lessons o IQ measured before and after year of lessons o Found IQ increased more with children who were in the music lesson group o Effects occurred across all of the subparts of the IQ test Why does this effect occur? - Something special about music in particular? - Or a more indirect cause? - Subsequent studies suggest effect is related to components of so-called ―executive function‖, ex: the ability to focus on the task, inhibit responses to distractions, and monitor one’s own musical performance in relation to the memory-stored version Music and Emotion - Recall: if music is understood to communicate something, the most plausible ―thing‖ is likely emotion - Other possibility: a tool for social interactive cohesion? (yes, but less general – only relevant for situations involving multiple individuals, not an ―iPod experience‖) - The potential to convey emotion = often apparent when considering the ―soundtrack‖ for films, TV shows, commercials, etc. Views on how music conveys emotion - (1) Cognitivist position: listeners are sensitive to the emotional meaning of music, but don’t necessarily directly experience the emotion - (2) Emotivist position: music directly evokes an emotional response - The debate gets particularly tricky when we consider that, in the modern world, people can select what to listen to o Did you mood determine what yu decide to list to, or vise versa? What might serve as evidence? - Physiological responses to music - Example: tingling, chills, shuddering o Can be assessed by self report - More fine-grained measures o Assessed with instrumentation o GSR (galvanic skin response: detects fine grained differences in sweating levels) o Heart rate o Respiration rate o Blood pressure - The existence of these effects could be used to argue for a ―direct‖ experience of emotion in music Interestingly: - Physiological responses tend to be similar regardless of the emotional valence of the music (example: happy vs. sad) - Perhaps evidence from these measures is only partially supportive for emotivist view? Relate to arousal levels more than types of emotion? Are some emotions communicated more easily than others? - Thompson and Robitaille (1992) - Asked established composers to create six melodies intended to communicate the following emotions: o Happiness o Sadness o Excitement o Dullness o Anger o Peacefulness Melodies were recorded using a MIDI sequencer that eliminated differences in performance expression - Listeners rated each melody for each of the six emotions - The composers’ intended emotions were typically rated higher than the unintended emotions for each musical composition - BUT: some differences emerged: o Happiness, sadness, excitement = best communicated o Anger = difficult to communicate - Subsequent research: opposite strategy – examine how performance expression conveys emotion when musical piece is held constant - Findings show a performer can communicate differing levels of certain emotions by how s/he is playing Can our listening experiences reveal the complexity of human emotion? - Common view of emotional ―valence‖ o Happy—sad - Position at opposite ends of a continuum suggests they cannot occur together in any strong degree Hunter, Schellenberg and Schimmack (2008) - Listeners rated how music excerpts made them feel using separate happy/sad scales - Each excerpt belonged to one of four stimulus types: o Fast tempo – major key o Fast tempo – minor key o Slow tempo – major key o Slow tempo – minor key - Faster tempo-major key normally sounds happier - Combination of key and tempo created samples where emotional valence cues were either the same or mixed - Results: o Responses to the mixed cases showed separation of ―happy‖ and ―sad‖ dimensions o Example: excerpt with minor key and fast tempo would score high on both happy and sad Music and the Brain - Interesting domain for exploring… o Specialization of hemispheres/ more specific brain regions for certain kinds of information processing o Concept of plasticity (example: in relation to expertise) o Differences/ similarities between music and language Initial Path - Sensory input from cochlea (inner ear) to brainstem to auditory cortex, in temporal lob - AC subdivided into primary, secondary, tertiary regions - Primary auditory cortex (―A1‖) contains tonotopic maps (frequency maps—
More Less

Related notes for PSY274H5

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit