Class Notes (807,235)
Canada (492,664)
Psychology (4,091)
PSY274H5 (129)
Lecture 12

PSY274 Lecture 12 (Nov 26).docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Craig Chambers

PSY274 Lecture 12 - FINAL EXAM DETAILS o Saturday, Dec 14, 1-3 PM (IB110) o Non cumulative; based on materials from last 4 lectures o Same structure as in class tests in terms of question types o 2 hours o Special office hours: Nov 28, 1-2PM; Dec 4: 3:30-4:30PM; and by appointment - Today o Music and emotion o Music and the brain - Effects of experience with music: o Effects on music processing o Effects on other domains  On other aspects of perception and cognition - Many aspects of music perception and cognition are not affected by explicit instruction o But some differences do exist:  E.g. precortical processing of musical sound is different for musicians compared to non-musicians  Cortical processing reflects expertise-based differences for sounds produced by the instrument the musician plays o What influences might music experience have on other domains? - One intriguing idea: the Mozart effect o Initial demonstration that PASSIVE EXPOSURE to classical music caused enhanced performance on spatial reasoning task  Something may change in your mind, might get “smarter” o Popular press misreported effect as being about IQ o Results made big splash in parenting/early education circles; Georgia state legislature: proposed budget to provide every newborn with classical music CD! o BUT:  Subsequently shown to be temporary (minutes)  Not so interesting because we’re interested in longer lasting effect  Effect not direct result of music but the arousal/mood modulations that music creates  Indirect effect; changes in arousal of mood music - E.g. not all classical music creates the effect (needs to be upbeat, positive-sounding); and rock music can also create the effect o Mozart effect has been debunked - What about FORMAL INSTRUCTION? o A different story: Numerous studies have shown correlations between IQ and music training o How do we interpret correlations of this sort? o Interpretive problem: do these correlations arise simply because children with higher IQ have higher musical abilities (and tend to enroll in/continue with lessons?) - Addressing the interpretative problem: o Schellenberg (2004):  Study of 6 years old  Got either a year of free music lessons or free drama lessons  IQ measured before and after year of lessons  Found IQ increased more with children who were in the music lessons group  Effects occurred across all of the subparts of the IQ test - Why does this effect occur? o Something special about music in particular? o Or a more indirect cause? o Subsequent studies suggest effect is related to components of so-called executive function, e.g. the ability to focus on the task, inhibit responses to distractions, and monitor one’s own musical performance in relation to the memory stored version  Something about the element of music instrument fosters the child to develop to train certain cognitive skills  What you sound like oppose to what everybody else sounds like  Training in executive function - Music and emotion o Recall: if music is understood to communicate something, the most plausible ‘thing’ is likely emotion o Other possibility: a tool for social interactive cohesion?  Yes, but less general – only relevant for situations involving multiple individuals, not an IPod experience” o The potential to convey emotion = often apparent when considering the ‘soundtrack’ for films, TV shows, commercials, etc; - Views on how music conveys emotion o 1) cognitivist position: listeners are sensitive to the emotional meaning of music, but don’t necessarily directly experience the emotion  Indirect way; just label it and then feel about it that way o 2) emotivist position: music directly evokes an emotional response  Automatic o This debate gets particularly tricky when we consider that, in the modern world, people can select what to listen to.  Did your mood determine what you decided to listen to, or vice versa? - What might serve as evidence? Physiological responses to music o E.g. tingling, chills, shuddering  Can be assessed by self report o More fine grained measures  Assessed with instrumentation  GSR (galvanic skin response: detects fine grained differences in sweating levels)  Heart rate  Respiration rate  Blood pressure o These existence of these effects could be used to argue for a “direct” experience of emotion in music; argued for the emotivist point of view - Interestingly: physiological responses tend to be similar regardless of the emotional valence of the music (e.g., happy vs. sad) o Whether it’s happy or sad, physiological responses are similar o Perhaps evidence from these measures is only partially supportive for emotivist view? Relate to arousal levels more than types of emotion? - Are some emotions communicated more easily than others? o Thompson and Robitaille (1992)  Asked established composers to create 6 melodies intended to communicate the following emotions  Happiness  Sadness  Excitement  Dullness  Anger  Peacefulness - Melodies were recorded using a MIDI sequencer that eliminated differences in performance expression o Listeners rated each melody for each of the six emotions o The composers’ intended emotions were typically rated higher than the unintended emotions for each musical composition  To a certain degree, they were successful o BUT: some differences emerged  Happiness, sadness, excitement = best communicated  Anger = difficult to communicate o Subsequent research: opposite strategy – examine how performance expression conveys emotion when musical piece is held constant. Findings show a performer can communicate differing levels of certain emotions by how s/he is playing - Can our listening experiences reveal the complexity of human emotion? o Common view of emotional “valence”  Happy—sad o Position at opposite ends of a continuum suggests they cannot occur together in any strong degree o Can experience multiple emotions  Ex. Marriage proposal: happy and terrified at the same time - Hunter, Schellenberg & Schimmack (2008) o Listeners rated how music excerpts made them feel using separate happy/sad scales o Each excerpt belonged to one of four stimulus types:  Fast tempo with major key  Fast tempo with minor key  Slow tempo with major key  Slow tempo with minor key o Faster tempo/major key normally sounds happier o Combination of key and tempo created samples where emotional valence cues were either the same or mixed  Yellow are mixed (light colour box)  Green are usually same (dark colour box) - Examples o Major key; fast tempo o Minor key, fast tempo o Major key, slow tempo o Minor key, slow tempo o Results:  Responses to the mixed cases showed separation of “happy” and “sad” dimensions  E.g. excerpt with minor key and fast tempo would score high on both happy and sad - Music and the brain o Interesting domain for exploring…  Specialization of hemispheres/more specific brain regions for certain kinds of information processing  Concept of plasticity (e.g., relation
More Less

Related notes for PSY274H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.